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Table 2 Therapeutic effects of NAD precursors in metabolic diseases

From: Implications of altered NAD metabolism in metabolic disorders

Model Administrated NAD precurser NAD levels in tissues Metabolic Effects References
Obesity NMN (500 mg/kg) Long-term: Liver ↑, Skeletal muscle↑, WAT → Short term: Liver ↑ Improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity [8]
NMN (500 mg/kg) not shown Improved insulin secretion and inhibited inflammation [63]
NMN 500 mg/kg Liver↑, Skeletal muscle↑ Improved glucose tolerance, liver citrate synthase activity, and triglyceride accumulation [64]
NR (400 mg/kg) Liver↑, Skeletal muscle↑, BAT↑, WAT→, Brain→ Enhanced mitochondiral biogenesis, Improved insulin sensitivity, and suppressed body weight gain [28]
NR (3 g/kg) Liver ↑ Improved glucose homeostasis and hepatic steatosis, suppressed body weight gain, and protective against diabetic neuropathy [10]
NR (400 mg/kg) Liver (whole) ↑, Liver (mitochondria) ↑, Improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, and suppressed body weight gain [9]
NR (200 mg/kg) not shown Reduced lipid accumulation and fibrosis in liver [17]
NR (5-900 ppm) Liver → Improved metabolic flexibility [65]
NAM (37.5 g/kg or 75 g/kg) Liver → Improved glucose tolerance and prevented hepatosteatosis [29]
Aging NMN (500 mg/kg) not shown Improved lipid profile, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion [8]
NMN (100, 300 mg/kg) Liver↑, Skeletal muscle↑ Inhibited age-induced weight gain, improved insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids, and increased physical activity, energy expenditure, and muscle mitochondrial function [27]
  1. WAT white adipose tissue, BAT brown adipose tissue