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Figure 1 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Figure 1

From: Basics and applications of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles

Figure 1

Summary of diverse bioactive molecules in tumor-derived EVs. Tumor-derived EVs are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that contain diverse bioactive molecules. These bioactive molecules can be divided into general groups, such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and metabolites. The nucleic acid group contains mutated oncogenes/ tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle-related mRNAs, and cancer-related miRNAs. The protein group can be divided into several subgroups: transmembrane proteins, growth factors, exosome biogenesis-related proteins, oncoproteins, and cytoskeletal proteins. Among members of the lipid group, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes can be detected in EVs. Some amino acids, pyruvate, lactate, and TCA-cycle intermediates are included in the metabolite group

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