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Table 2 a List of putative microbes associated with sarcoidosis and detected by microbiological or proteomic methods

From: Host-microbe interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical course of sarcoidosis

Microorganism Detection method Main findings Type of sample Reference
C. acnes and Cutibacterium sp. IHC with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody. C. acnes-positive reactivity in 10 (63%), of granulomas form cardiac sarcoidosis FFPE of myocardial tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy from patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (n = 26), myocarditis (n = 15), or other cardiomyopathies (n = 39) [5]
IHC using monoclonal antibody against P. acnes. Granuloma in the epiretinal membrane was observed in 4 of 10 patients with sarcoidosis, and all the granulomas were positive for PAB Ten patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis [70]
IHC with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAB antibody). P. acnes, identified as round bodies that reacted with the PAB antibody, were present in 10/12 samples (83%) from 9/11 patients (82%) with sarcoidosis Eleven patients (12 eyes) with sarcoid uveitis were enrolled in this study. [107]
MALDI-IMS for propionibacterial proteins Sarcoidosis 7/15
Controls 1/4
Nineteen snap frozen sarcoidosis specimens were analyzed using a MALD-IMS [113]
IHC and western blotting with PAB antibody and ribosome-bound trigger-factor protein (TIG antibody) Small round bodies within sarcoid granulomas in 20/27 (74%) video-assisted thoracic surgery lung samples, 24/50 (48%) transbronchial lung biopsy samples, 71/81 (88%) Japanese lymph node samples, and 34/38 (89%) German lymph node samples. FFPE samples of lungs and lymph nodes from 196 patients with sarcoidosis, and corresponding control samples from 275 patients with non-sarcoidosis diseases. [108]
Isolation of P. acnes in culture Sarcoidosis 31/40 Controls 38/180   Abe, 1984 [19]
mTB and Mycobacterium sp IHC with panels of various antibodies, including antimycobacterial MAbs specific for M tuberculosis complex, for M. leprae and for cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens Pleomorphic chromogens (PCs) structures are sites of mycobacterial degradation 28 cases of sarcoidosis and 14 cases of malignancy associated sinus histiocytosis (series B)  
Microscopic identification of mTB bacilli Tubercle bacilli found in the sarcoid phase in 18; in preceding caseating tuberculosis in 11;. Granuloma specimens from 240 patients with tuberculosis. [133]
IHC using mTB PPD antibody was used to detect mycobacterial antigens IHC analysis for MTB anti-PPD antibody positive for all TB patients and in 3 sarcoidosis patients (30%) FFPE tissue specimens from granulomatous tissues of 10 patients with sarcoidosis and 12 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis  
Borrelia sp and Borrelia Burgdorferi IHC with anti-borrelia polyclonal antibody and assessment with FFM Using FFPE, Borrelia were detected in 127 cases of GA (80.9%). 157 biopsies of GA Ziemer M, 2008 [165], Germany
IHC with anti-borrelia polyclonal antibody and assessment FFM 26% (13/35) were positive to Borrelia sp. 1/61 Borrelia sp. Cutaneous sarcoidosis (skin biopsies) Derler, 2009 [30] Austria
Dot-blot analysis
(Dotblot Borrelia Kit) and ELISA assay
Borrelia sp.
2/100 Borrelia sp.
Serum samples from 46 patients with sarcoidosis an 150 controls Ishihara, 1998 [82] Japan
ELISA and Western blot for Borrelia burgdorferi B. burgdorferi + in sarcoidosis 1/60
controls 27/1000
Borrelia burdorferi.
Serum samples os patients with sarcoidosis Martens, 1997 [98] Germany
Elisa and Dot-blot
analysis for Borrelia sp.
Sarcoidosis patients 2/38 (5.3%) Borrelia sp.
Control 1/80 (1.2%)
Borrelia sp.
Serum samples
Mainly lung sarcoidosis
Ishihara, 1996 [81] Japan
  1. aSelected references are articles in which microbes or their proteins were directly documented within sarcoidal granulomas. Studies where the presence of microbes was investigated at genomic level (DNA or RNA) are compiled in other reviews articles published elsewhere
  2. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)
  4. Focus-floating microscopy (FFM)
  5. Purified protein derivative (PPD)
  6. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)
  7. Granuloma Annulare (GA)