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Table 1 Clinical manifestations of EV-A71 infection at different stages

From: Enterovirus A71 neurologic complications and long-term sequelae

Stage Diagnosis Manifestations
1 HFMD, herpangina, fever Fever, oral ulceration, vesicular rash or small erythematous maculopapular rash on the hands, the feet, the knees, or the buttocks
2 CNS involvement including aseptic meningitis, myoclonic jerk, encephalitis, polio-like syndrome, encephalomyelitis Myoclonic jerk, limb weakness, lethargy, headache, vomiting, upward gaze, nystagmus, wandering eyes, seizure
3 Autonomic nervous system dysregulation and/or cardiopulmonary failure after CNS involvement Tachycardia, hyperthermia, profuse sweating, transient hypertension, tachypnea, hypoxia, shock,
4 Convalescence Some with complete recovery but some with long-term sequelae shown in Table 2
  1. HFMD hand, foot, and mouth disease, CNS central nervous system