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Table 2 Long-term sequelae of severe EV-A 71 infections

From: Enterovirus A71 neurologic complications and long-term sequelae

Sequelae Possible causes
Dysphagia with nasogastric tube or gastrostomy feeding Neuronal damage of the brainstem
Central hypoventilation with tracheostomy and ventilator support as Fig. 1 shows Neuronal damage of the brainstem
Limb weakness/atrophy as Fig. 3 shows Motor neuron damage
Seizure Neuronal damage or hypoxia
Neurodevelopmental delay Neuronal damage, younger age of onset or hypoxia
Lower cognition Neuronal damage, younger age of onset or hypoxia
Behavioral problems, such as ADHD or oppositional symptoms Cause to be determined
  1. ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder