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Table 4 Effects of gamma irradiation on ESBL production by five ESBLs-producing bacterial strains

From: Natural outer membrane permeabilizers boost antibiotic action against irradiated resistant bacteria

Isolate No./ Species of microorganism Radiation Half of inhibition zone (mm) in absence AMC / adjacent to AMC disk (DDST) Mean ± SD (SE) Half of inhibition zone (mm) in absence TZP/adjacent to TZP disk (MDDT) Mean ± SD (SE)
AMC CTX CAZ FEP ATM TZP CAZ FEP
2/ Escherichia coli Before 5.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /7 ± 0.5(0.3) 3 ± 0.3 (0.2) /8 ± 0.6 (0.3) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /3 ± 0.6 (0.3) 3 ± 0.8 (0.5) /3 ± 0.1 (0.1) 7 ± 0.8 (0.5) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /9 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /6 ± 0.5(0.3)
After 6 ± 0.5(0.3) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /7 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /8 ± 0.7 (0.4) 5 ± 0.4 (0.2) /5 ± 0.1 (0.1) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /3 ± 0.7 (0.4) 9 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3 ± 0.4 (0.2) /9 ± 0.2 (0.1) 5 ± 0.3 (0.2) /8 ± 0.2 (0.1)
% of change 8.3 0.0 /0.0 0.0 /0.0 40 /40 0.0 /0.0 22.2 0.0 /0.0 40 /25
(p-value) 0.288 1.000 /1.000 1.000 /1.000 <0.001** /0.005* 1.000 /1.000 0.014* 1.000 /1.000 0.004* /0.003*
4/ Acinetobacter baumannii Before 5 ± 0.4 (0.2) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /3 ± 0.4 (0.2) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /3 ± 0.4 (0.2) 3.5 ± 0.5(0.3) /10 ± 0.6 (0.3) 3 ± 0.3 (0.2) /7 ± 0.7 (0.4) 7.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 3 ± 0.7 (0.4) /10 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3.5 ± 0.4 (0.2) /3.5 ± 0.5(0.3)
After 5 ± 0.6 (0.3) 5 ± 0.3 (0.2) /6 ± 0.6 (0.3) 5 ± 0.4 (0.2) /6 ± 0.2 (0.1) 4 ± 0.5(0.3) /11 ± 0.8 (0.5) 3 ± 0.8 (0.5) /7 ± 0.2 (0.1) 9.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 5 ± 0.5(0.3) /13 ± 0.4 (0.2) 4 ± 0.2 (0.1) /5.5 ± 0.3 (0.2)
% of change 0.0 40 /50 40 /50 12.5 /9.1 0.0 /0.0 21.1 40 /23.1 12.5 /36.4
(p-value) 1.000 0.004*/ 0.002* <0.001** / <0.001** 0.288 /0.158 1.000 /1.000 0.008* 0.016* / <0.001** 0.125 /0.004*
8/ Pseudomonas aeruginosa Before 3 ± 0.9 (0.5) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1)/3 ± 0.5(0.3) 4.5 ± 0.4 (0.2) /10 ± 0.2 (0.1) 8 ± 0.4 (0.2) /12 ± 0.2 (0.1) 6 ± 0.3 (0.2) /6 ± 0.5(0.3) 8.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 4.5 ± 0.5(0.3) /11 ± 0.2 (0.1) 8 ± 0.2 (0.1) /12 ± 0.4 (0.2)
After 5 ± 0.3 (0.2) 5 ± 0.4 (0.2)/6 ± 0.2 (0.1) 6.5 ± 0.2 (0.1)/13 ± 0.5(0.3) 9 ± 0.2 (0.1) /13.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 7 ± 0.4 (0.2)/8 ± 0.2 (0.1) 12 ± 0.3 (0.2) 6 ± 0.2 (0.1) /13.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 9 ± 0.1 (0.1) /14 ± 0.2 (0.1)
% of change 40 40 /50 30.8 /23.1 11.1 /11.1 14.3 /25 29.2 25 /18.5 11.1 /14.3
(p-value) 0.22* <0.001** / <0.001** <0.001** / <0.001** 0.018* /0.008* 0.026* /0.003* <0.001** 0.008* / <0.001** <0.001** / <0.001**
9/ Pseudomonas aeruginosa Before 3 ± 0.3 (0.2) 3 ± 0.5(0.3) /3 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3 ± 0.4 (0.2) /9 ± 0.2 (0.1) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /8 ± 0.3 (0.2) 8 ± 0.2 (0.1) /8 ± 0.5(0.3) 5.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /8 ± 0.4 (0.2) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /7 ± 0.1 (0.1)
After 4.5 ± 0.5(0.3) 4.5 ± 0.5(0.3) /5 ± 0.2 (0.1) 5 ± 0.2 (0.1) /11 ± 0.4 (0.2) 5 ± 0.5(0.3) /11 ± 0.2 (0.1) 9 ± 0.2 (0.1) /10 ± 0.3 (0.2) 6.5 ± 0.3 (0.2) 5 ± 0.1 (0.1) /10 ± 0.2 (0.1) 5 ± 0.5(0.3) /10 ± 0.1 (0.1)
% of change 33.3 33.3 /40 40 /18.2 40 /22.3 11.1 /20 15.4 40 /20 40 /30
(p-value) 0.011* 0.021* / <0.001** <0.001** / <0.001** 0.003* / <0.001** 0.004* /0.004* 0.041* <0.001** / <0.001** 0.003* / <0.001**
13/ Enterobacter cloacae Before 4 ± 0.1 (0.1) 3 ± 0.2 (0.1) /3 ± 0.5(0.3) 7 ± 0.1 (0.1) /11 ± 0.4 (0.2) 6 ± 0.2 (0.1) /11 ± 0.4 (0.2) 6 ± 0.2 (0.1) /6 ± 0.1 (0.1) 10 ± 0.2 (0.1) 7 ± 0.1 (0.1) /12 ± 0.2 (0.1) 6 ± 0.1 (0.1) /10 ± 0.2 (0.1)
After 4 ± 0.5(0.3) 4 ± 0.1 (0.1) /4 ± 0.3 (0.2) 8.5 ± 0.4 (0.2)/13 ± 0.2 (0.1) 6.5 ± 0.1 (0.1) /12 ± 0.1 (0.1) 6 ± 0.2 (0.1) /7 ± 0.3 (0.2) 12 ± 0.3 (0.2) 8.5 ± 0.1 (0.1) /14 ± 0.2 (0.1) 6.5 ± 0.2 (0.1)/10.5 ± 0.3 (0.2)
% of change 0.0 25 /25 17.6 /15.4 7.5 /8.3 0.0 /14.3 16.7 17.6 /14.3 7.5 /4.8
(p-value) 1.000 <0.001** / 0.041* 0.003* / <0.001** 0.018* /0.014* 1.000 /0.005* <0.001** <0.001** / <0.001** 0.018* /0.074
  1. DDST Double disk synergy test, MDDT Modified double disk synergy test p-value significant <0.05
  2. AMC (20/10 μg) = Amoxicillin /clavulanic Acid CTX (30 μg) = Cefotaxime p-value non significant > 0.05
  3. CAZ (30 μg) = Ceftazidime FEP (30 μg) = Cefepime p-value highly significant <0.001**
  4. ATM (30 μg) = Aztreonam TZP (100/10 μg) = Piperacillin / tazobactam