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Table 1 The cytokines, chemokines and enzymes derived from TAMs and associated signaling pathways

From: Tumor-associated macrophages: an accomplice in solid tumor progression

  Signaling pathway Process Solid tumor Derivation Ref.
Cytokines
 IL-1 IL-1β/15-PGDH Tumor growth Pancreatic cancer M1, TAM 11
PGDF Neovascularization Colon cancer   37
 IL-6 IL-6/STAT3 Chemotherapy resistance Colorectal cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma M1, TAM 13
  Neovascularization Colon cancer   37
 IL-10   Suppress T cells   M2, TAM 78
 TNF-α NF-κB/MITF Chemotherapy resistance Melanoma M1, TAM 34
 TGF-β Smad/Snail signaling pathway EMT Colorectal cancer M2a, TAM 65
TGF-β/SOX9 Cell invasion Non-small cell lung cancer   52
 VEGF HIF1α Neoangiogenesis Skin cancer mouse model and Merkel cell carcinoma TAM 35,41,42
Chemokines
 CXCL8 CXCL8/HOXB13/ERα Invasion and metastasis Endometrial cancer TAM 9
 TIE2 ANG2/TIE2 angiogenesis Mammary tumor and pancreatic insulinoma models TAM 45
 CCL18 CCL18/ PITPNM3 Migration Breast cancer M2, TAM 54
GM-CSF/CCL18 feedback loop EMT and metastasis Breast cancer   67
 CCL20   Recruit CCR6 + nTreg Colorectal cancer M1, M2b, TAM 77
 CCL22   Recruit CCR4 + nTreg Ovarian carcinoma M2, TAM 76
Enzymes
 Cathepsin Cathepsin B/Nlrp3 Tumor growth, invasion and metastasis Breast cancer TAM 33,50
 MMPs MMP-9 Angiogenesis and tumor growth Melanoma TAM 12
MMP-9 Tumor migration and invasion Triple-negative breast cancer mouse model and lung cancer TAM 55,56