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Table 1 The mechanisms, components, and applications of smart polymers in precision medicine

From: Smart polymers for cell therapy and precision medicine

Category Mechanism Component Applications Benefit References
Stimuli response Temperature NiPAAm Biomolecule carriers Injectable [29]
   Wound dressing Long-term antimicrobial and anti-protein absorption [30]
   Sensing, imaging, and carrier Multifunctional sensing and imaging [31]
   Cell culture platform Bioactive cell recovery [32]
   PU Cell or drug carrier Highly tunable [33]
   Neural tissue engineering Printable bioink [34]
   Pluronic Drug delivery Injectable, thermo-responsive [35]
  Photo Epoxy resins Dental restorative or fillers Durable, easy operation [36]
   GelMA Cell culture platform Printable multi cells [37]
   Cartilage tissue engineering Animal model [38]
   Bone tissue engineering Structurally stable for large bone defects [39]
   PU Neural tissue engineering Printable soft bioink [8]
Self-healing Physical interaction Poly(styrene-acrylic acid) Artificial cartilage or skin High mechanical strength [40, 41]
   Poly(glyceryl amine) Dermal drug delivery Strong penetration ability [42]
   Polyaniline, phytic acid Wearable electronics Mechanically robust [43]
   Silver-nucleoside complex [Ag(I)-(N3-cytidine)2] Metallo-DNA Thixotropic self-healing [44]
  Chemical covalent bond Polyurea, HA Polyurea flooring systems Crack repair [45]
   HA, glycol chitosan Cartilage tissue engineering Biocompatibility [46]
   Graphene nanoplate Electronic devices Electrical conductivity [47]
Shape memory Temperature PU Shape memory stents or scaffolds Biodegradability [48]
   N,N-dimethylacrylamide Artificial intervertebral disk Strong interface [49]
  Water PU Bone tissue engineering Printable bioink [50]
   Cellulose Pressure sensor Zero poisson ratio, durable [51]
  pH Alginate Bioglue Adhesive [52]