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Table 1 Comparison of properties of the imaging modalitiesa

From: Photoacoustic imaging of cells in a three-dimensional microenvironment

Imaging modalitySpatial resolutionImaging depthChemical sensitivityPotential applications
EM1 nm0.1 μmN.A.Biomineralization, biomaterial surface structure, pore formation, cell–biomaterial interaction
CM0.4 μm0.1 mmHighCell behavior, cell tracking, gene expression, cellular substructure, functional activity
MPM1 μm1 mmHighBiomaterial architecture, cell tracking, functional activity
OR-PAM2.5 μm1 mmHighCell tracking, functional activity, fluid dynamics, cell–biomaterial interaction
OCT10 μm2 mmLowVascularization, biomaterial architecture, functional activity
AR-PAM45 μm3 mmHighVascularization, biomaterial architecture, cell metabolism, functional activity
US (20 MHz)165 μm3 cmLowFluid dynamics, mechanics, spatial patterning of cells, functional activity
  1. aAbbreviations: EM electron microscopy, CM confocal microscopy, MPM multi-photon microscopy, OR-PAM optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy, OCT optical coherence tomography, AR-PAM acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy, US ultrasound imaging, N.A. not available