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Fig. 1 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 1

From: Interplays between Enterovirus A71 and the innate immune system

Fig. 1

Interactions between EV-A71 and the TLR and RLR pathways. Upon EV-A71 infection, TLR3, TLR7, and MDA5 are implicated in detecting EV-A71 viral RNA in different cell types to trigger type I IFN-mediated antiviral immunity. TLR9 may detect endogenous host DNA from the lytic cycle of EV-A71-infected cells to trigger type I IFN-mediated antiviral immunity. To promote EV-A71 propagation in host cells, several EV-A71 viral factors, including 2A, 2C, 3C, and 3D, are shown to target the TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA5 pathways and downstream mediators to counteract antiviral innate immunity

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