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Fig. 8 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 8

From: Mode of action of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a novel therapy for stroke in a mouse model

Fig. 8

Schematic representation of G-CSF mechanism of action in BCAO mouse model. 1 – G-CSF binds to G-CSF receptors resulting in phosphorylation and activation of JAK2; 2 – Activated JAK2 then activates four transduction pathways including STAT3, PI3K, ERK1/2 and ERK5; 3 – Activated STAT3 is then translocated into the nucleus and turns on the transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL whereas activated PI3K and ERK1/2 inhibit the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD, resulting in the protection of mitochondria; 4 – Increase level of Bcl2 which combines with Beclin 1 and forms complex that inhibits autophagy activation; 5 – Activated PI3K further activate Akt/p-Akt which in turn inhibits Ask-1, one of the proteins involved in ER stress pathways resulting in decreased level of CHOP and inactivation of the downstream signaling molecules involved in apoptosis including BAD and Bim

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