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Table 3 ncRNAs and related processes in Alzheimer’s disease

From: Functional roles and networks of non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

 Nameup/down regulationgenetic mutationDescriptionModelRef
LncRNAsBC1upTg2576-APPsweInduces APP mRNA translation via association with fragile X syndrome protein (FMRP). Induces Aβ peptides accumulation and affects spatial learning and memory impairments of mice.mouse[83]
 BC200up Regulate cell vialbility via directly targeting BACE1 mRNA expression. BC200 increases BACE1 expression and enhances Aβ1–42 expressioin.AD brain section[8486]
 LncRNA -17AupAβ1–42 treatmentUpregulates autophagy, deactivates GABAB signaling and induces neurodegeneration.neuroblastoma[87]
 LncRNA -17AupInducing inflammation responseImpaires GABAB signaling through mediating receptor isoform switch via altering alternative splcing, and further induce Aβ secretion and increment of Aβ42/40 ratio.AD brain section, SH-SY5Y cells[88]
 MEG3upmicroinjection of Aβ25–35Inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, decreased Aβ expression, inhibited oxidative stress injury and inflammatory injury.rat[89]
 MIATdownAPPswe/PSEN1ΔE9Regulates amyloid clearance via regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) expression and miR-150-5p/VEGF mediated fibrillogenesis; Increased Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels and neuronal loss; Decreased brain microvessel number and the expression of tight junction proteins.mouse[90]
 NDM29upInduces APP synthesis and promotes cleavage activity of BACE1 and γ-secretase. Increase Aβ secretion and increment of Aβ42/40 ratio.AD brain section, mouse neuroblastoma[88]
 NEAT1upAβ1–42 treatmentMediates Aβ and pTau induced neuronal death via acting as miR-107 decoy.human cell line[91]
 NEAT1upMediates Aβ secretion and pTau via regulating miR-124/BACE1 regulation.mouse model[92]
 NEAT1upNegetively regulating CDK5R1 mRNA level through positively regulating miR-15/107.AD brain[93]
 P3Alu/SINEup in RPENeurodegeneration via P3Alu-induced inflammasomes (in RPE; still a hypothesis in neurons)AD brain section, mouse model[94]
NATsBACE1-ASupAPP-KM670/ 671NL and V717FStabilizes BACE1 mRNA and prevents miR-485-5p targeting on BACE1 mRNA. Increased Aβ42 is identified in the models.AD brain section, mouse[95, 96]
 BDNF-ASupIn epigenetic level, promots BDNF depletion.mouse model, HEK293T[33]
 EBF3-ASupAPPswe/PSEN1ΔE9, Aβ25–35 treated cellReduces EBF3 (early B cell factor 3) expression and promots cell death.mouse model, cell[97]
 SORL1-AS(51A)upSORL1-AS is the antisense orientation in intron 1 of the SORL1 gene and decrease SORL expression via altering splicing. SORL1-AS overexpression results in impaired processing of APP and increased Aβ formation.AD brain section[98]
 SOX21-AS1upAβ1–40 treatmentReducing Frizzled 3/5 (FZD3/5) mediated Wnt signaling pathwa and trigged oxidative stree and cell death in hippocampal neurons.mouse model[99]
 NAT-RAd18upAβ1–40 treatmentPromotes DNA damage via reducing Rad18 expresion, and leads to cell death.Rat cortical neurons[100]
 LRP1-ASupDisrupts LRP1 mediated Aβ clarance via directly binding to high-mobility group box 2 (Hmgb2) and blocking the Srebp1a-dependent transcription of LRP1. Promotes APP endocytic trafficking, increases Aβ formation and decreases Aβ clearance.AD brain section, Hmgb2 KO mice and mouse RAW264.7 cell line[101, 102]
 EBF3-AS, HAO2-AS, AD-lic1, AD-linc2upPromoting neuron apoptosis.AD brain section[103]
microRNAslet-7bupActivating RNA-sensing Toll-like receptor 7 and neuronal death.AD CSF, mouse model, macrophages[104]
 miR-106bupTg-APPswe/PSΔE9Regulate TGF-β signaling pathways and reduce phosphprylation of Smad2/3 and smad6/7 for promoting neurodegenration.mouse models[105]
 miR-106bdownRegulates tau phosphoryation via targeting Fyn (tyrosine kinase) and increase pTau.AD brain section, human cell line[106]
 miR-128up3xTg-ADReducing APP expression, Aβ production and inflammatory response via tardeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression.mouse model[107]
 miR-34a, mIr132/212down3x Tg-AD (PSEN1(PS1M146V), APP (APPSwe) and Tau (P301L)Correlated with Aβ production via targeting Sirt. Sirt can regulate Aβ production.mouse model[108, 109]
 miR-132/212down3x Tg-AD (PSEN1(PS1M146V), APP (APPSwe) and Tau (P301L)Regulating Tau expression via direct interaction and association with GSK-3β and PP2B mediated tau phosphorylation.AD brain section, mouse model, mouse neuroblastoma[110]
 miR-142a-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-455-5pupAPPswe/PS1L166P, THY-Tau22May be part of a protective response in AD.AD brain section, mouse model[110]
 miR-15/107downIncrease expression of CDK5R1/p35 and consequently enhance CDK5 activity. miR-15/107 also modulates BACE1 expression and increase APP protein expresin and pTau formation.AD brain section, human cell lines[111, 112]
 miR-16down Attenuate Aβ mediated neurotoxicity via reducing BACE1 morten tissue[113]
 miR-200b/cupAβ treatment/ Tg2576 transgenic micemiR-200b/c inhibits S6K1-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1, suppresse IRS-1pSer signaling pathway and cause insulin resistance in the brain. Aβ secretion is corelated in the models.mouse model, mouse cell lines[114]
 miR-25upAβ1–42 inductionDownregulating KLF2 via Nrf2 signaling pathway to suppress proliferation and promot apoptosis.mouse model[115]
 miR-29a/b-1downDecreases BACE1 expression.AD brain section[116]
 miR-29cdownRegulating the expression of BACE1 by directly targeting its 3’UTR and promoting cell proliferation via PKA signaling. Increasing BACE1 level via PKA/CREB signaling pathway.Peripheral blood of AD pateints, SAMP mouse model[117]
 miR-33deletionmiR-33(−/−); APPswe/PSEN1ΔE9,Increasing ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, ApoE lipidation, and decreaseing Aβ level.mouse and human neural cells[118]
 miR-34aupAPPswe/PSEN1ΔE9Regulating γ-secretase activity, BACE1 expression and lead to increasing Aβ level. Interacting with the 3′-UTR of bcl2 mRNA and inhibiting bcl2 translation, and increasing caspase 3 activity.mouse model[119, 120]
 miR-485-5pdownmiR-485-5p is corelated to BACE1 upregulation. The expression of two competitively regulatory RNAs, miR-485-5p and BACE1-AS, are dysregulated.AD brain section[96]
 miR-873-5pdownAβ1–42 inductionPreveting apoptosis via targeting Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) expression level.mouse model, rat cell line[121]
 miR-338-5pdown5XFAD transgenic (TG) miceMediaing amyloid formation via targeting BACE1; associtaed with NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Doenregulated miR-338-5p increases BACE1 expression, Aβ formation, and neuroinflammation.AD brain section, mouse[122]