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Table 6 LncRNAs involved in cardiovascular development

From: Expedition to the missing link: Long noncoding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases

LncRNAPhysiological/pathological impactMechanism involved
Bvht [106]Bvht is essential for promoting ESC differentiation to cardiovascular cell fate1. Upstream of MesP1 to promote MesP1-related gene expression
2. Modulating cardiovascular commitment through interacting with PRC2
Linc1405 [107]Participate in developmental process, activate primitive streak differentiation.1. Recruit Eomes to bind on MesP1 promotor
CARMEN [108]Inhibit the expression of Bvht to control the cardiac differentiation, mediate the cardiac transcriptional factors, play roles in cardiac specification and homeostasis1. Upstream of Bvht to function with EZH2 and SUZ12
Fendrr [109]Regulate histone modifier complexes, restrict the caudal end of the lateral mesoderm formation1. Downstream modulate Foxf1
2. Occupy the Foxf1, Pitx2 and Irx3 promotors to reduce the genes expression
1. Inhibit the promoter of Gata6 and Nkx2–5
PANCR [110, 111]Indirect but necessary to activate CM differentiation1. Coordinately improve the cardiogenic differentiation with PITX2C
PLAYRR [112] 1. Act as PITX2C exhibit mutual antagonism
Upperhand (Uph) [113]Reprogramming cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes1. Upregulate the expression of HAND2
Handdown (Hdn) [113,114,115]Reprogramming cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes1. Interact with Uph to regulate HAND2 level
HA117 [116]Anti-differentiation function in leukemia and Hirschsprung’s disease1. Regulate the neighboring gene, DPF3 and RGS6
2. Hypothesis as a biomarker for TOF