Skip to main content
Fig. 2 | Journal of Biomedical Science

Fig. 2

From: Fasting to enhance Cancer treatment in models: the next steps

Fig. 2

Metabolism affects stress response and cancer progression. a The effects of nutrients on cellular stress response through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Step 1: Metabolism of selenium and its impact on ROS generation. Step 2: Oxidation of vitamin C in cells and the process of generating H2O2 and ROS. Step 3: Mechanism of α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) promoting ROS generation via damaging redox chain in the mitochondria. Step 4: Fatty acid (FA) induced ROS levels by promoting the carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the mitochondria. b The effects of nutrients on cancer progression via insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels: Step 1: Whey protein increases the levels of insulin and IGF-1 by directly stimulating insulin levels or through growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone receptor (GHR). Step 2: Stimulation from high glycemic diet to insulin generation Step 3: Effects of dietary fat on the circulating levels of insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Dietary fat could stimulate insulin levels and circulating IGF-1 levels while inhibiting the expression of IGFBP-3. Step 4: The interactions of vitamin D, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 can form a positive feedback circuit, and intake of Vitamin D can increase the IGF-1 levels to some extent. The increase of IGF-1 levels activates different signal pathways, which then affects cancer progression

Back to article page