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Table 2 | HALs identified extracellularly

From: Signaling in and out: long-noncoding RNAs in tumor hypoxia

LncRNAExtracellular space identifiedCell to Cell TransferFunctional ImpactMechanismRef
aHIF
(HIF1A-AS2)
Serum
(aHIF level in serum correlates with its expression in matched ectopic endometria)
Endometriotic cyst stromal cells (ECSCs)-derived exosomes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)Elicits proangiogenic behavior in HUVECs, thus facilitating endometriosis angiogenesis.Activates VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and b-FGF in HUVECs[133]
CCAT2Exosomes secreted from cultured glioma cellsU87-MG glioma cells to HUVECsPromotes HUVEC angiogenesis and inhibits apoptosis induced by hypoxiaPromotes VEGF-A, TGF-β and Bcl2 expression. Inhibits BAX and caspase 3 expression[134]
HISLA (LINC01146)Extracellular vesicles secreted by tumor associated fibroblasts (TAMs)TAMs to breast cancer cellsEnhances aerobic glycolysis and apoptotic resistance of cancer cellsStabilizes HIF-1α[135]
PVT1Exosomes secreted from cultured colon cancer cells. Cancer cells with more aggressive phenotypes have more extracellular PVT1Not determinedPromotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. [136]
linc-RORExosomes secreted from cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cellsHCC cancer cells to cancer cellsPromotes cell survival of recipient cellsThrough a miR-145–HIF-1α signaling module to increase HIF-1α expression[87]
UCA1Exosomes secreted from cultured bladder cancer cells & serumBladder cancer 5637 cells with high expression of UCA1 to bladder cancer UMUC2 cells with low expression of UCA1Promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion of recipient cells
Promotes xenograft growth
Through regulating the expression of genes involved in EMT (E-cad, MMP9, vimentin)[137]