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Table 2 The association between lifestyle and clinical factors and pancreatic cancer risk

From: Validation of genome-wide association study-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in a case-control study of pancreatic cancer from Taiwan

Characteristics Cases
N = 278
n (%)
Controls
N = 658
n (%)
Analysis 1
OR (95% CI)a
Analysis 2
OR (95% CI)b
Cigarette smoking
 Never 162 (58.3) 496 (75.4) Reference Reference
 Ever 116 (41.7) 162 (24.6) 1.63 (1.10–2.40) 1.61 (1.05–2.46)
Oral hygiene scorec
 0 (Good) 27 (9.7) 180 (27.4) Reference Reference
 1 65 (23.4) 219 (33.3) 1.63 (0.98–2.70) 1.44 (0.85–2.43)
 2 118 (42.4) 198 (30.1) 2.88 (1.77–4.69) 2.15 (1.28–3.62)
 3 (Poor) 60 (21.6) 52 (7.9) 4.60 (2.56–8.29) 2.58 (1.37–4.86)
 Unknown 8 (2.9) 9 (1.4)
Vegetable consumption
 3 portions or less per week 106 (38.1) 100 (15.2) Reference Reference
  > 3 portions per week 172 (61.9) 558 (84.8) 0.29 (0.21–0.41) 0.34 (0.24–0.49)
Fruit consumption
 1 portion or less per day 85 (30.6) 143 (21.7) Reference Reference
  > 1 portion per day 193 (69.4) 513 (78.0) 0.71 (0.51–1.00) 0.95 (0.80–1.13)
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)
Allergy
 No 227 (81.6) 405 (61.6) Reference Reference
 Yes 51 (18.4) 251 (38.1) 0.46 (0.32–0.65) 0.47 (0.32–0.69)
 Unknown 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)
Diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance (DM/GI)
 No DM/GI 196 (70.5) 602 (91.5) Reference Reference
  < 2 years 22 (7.9) 16 (2.4) 4.08 (2.01–8.25) 3.04 (1.42–6.50)
  > 2 years 59 (21.2) 39 (5.9) 3.71 (2.36–5.87) 2.84 (1.74–4.61)
 Unknown 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2)
BMI 2 years agod
  < 18.5 4 (1.4) 36 (5.5) 0.37 (0.12–1.09) 0.38 (0.12–1.17)
 18.5–23.9 102 (36.7) 319 (48.5) Reference Reference
 24–26.9 83 (29.9) 191 (29.0) 1.07 (0.75–1.53) 0.99 (0.67–1.47)
 27 or more 87 (31.3) 111 (16.9) 2.09 (1.43–3.06) 1.68 (1.11–2.54)
 Unknown 2 (0.7) 1 (0.1)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DM/GI diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance, OR odds ratio
  2. aOR and 95% CI of each independent variable in Model 1 was calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age, and education
  3. bModel 2 included all of the independent variables in the same model with additional adjustment for sex, age, and education
  4. cOral hygiene score = tooth brushing + use of dental floss + regular dental visit, with tooth brushing: 2 times per day = 0, < 2 times per day = 1; use of dental floss: yes = 0, no = 1; and regular dental visit: yes = 0, no = 1
  5. dBMI at two years before the pancreatic cancer diagnosis for the cases or before the interview date for the controls