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Table 1 Summary of HCV vaccine candidates based on E1/E2 glycoproteins in preclinical or clinical trials

From: Hepatitis C virus vaccine design: focus on the humoral immune response

Vaccine / HCV genotype Target Cross-genotype neutralization activity using HCVpp and/or HCVcc Immunized species Refs
rE2(Δ123) and rE2(Δ123A7) / HCV 1a (H77c) E2 1a (H77), 2a (J6), 3a (S52), 5a (SA13) Guinea pigs [31]
rHCV E1/E2 with admixed sulfated S-lactosylarchaeol (SLA) archaeosome formulation as adjuvant / HCV 1a (H77) E1E2 N/A C57BL/6 x BALB/c F1 mice [32]
HCVp6-MAP. Six peptides (p6) in a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) derived from conserved epitopes in E1 (1), E2 (2), NS4B (1), NS5A (1) and NS5B (1) / HCV 4a (ED43) E1, E2, NS4b, NS5a, NS5b 2a (JFH1) and a chimeric 2a/4a (ED43/JFH1) BALB/c mice [33]
DNA vaccine encoding sE1E2 into IMX313P (oligomers by fusion with the oligomerization domain of the C4b-binding protein) or sE1 and sE2 as separate immunogens / HCV 1b (HCV-N) E1, E2, E1E2 1a (H77.20, UKN1A20.8), 1b (ukn1b5.23), 2a (ukn2a1.2, a2.4), 2b (UKN2B1.1, B2.8), 3a (UKN3A1.28, A1.9, A13.6), 4a (UKN4.11.1, 4.21.16), 5 (UKN5.14.4), 6 (UKN6.5.8, 6.5.340) BALB/c mice [34]
HCV-like particles bearing core, E1 and E2 from four genotypes / 1a (H77), 1b (BK), 2a (JFH1), and 3a E1, E2, core 1a (H77), 1b (BK), 2a (JFH1/J6, JFH1), 3a (HIC-109) BALB/c mice
White Landrace pigs
[35, 36]
Chimeric HBV/HCV virus‐like particles bearing three conservative linear epitopes from E1 and E2 and HVR1 mimotope / N/D E1, E2 1a (JFH1/H77, H77C/JFH1), 1b (Hebei, J4/JFH1), 2a (JFH1/J6, JFH1) BALB/c mice [37]
rE2(Δ123) / HCV 1a (H77c) E2 1a (H77c), 2a (J6), 3a (S52), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a (EUHK2), 7a (QC69) Albino Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs [38]
rHCV E1/E2 with MF59C.1 as an adjuvant / HCV 1a E1E2 Genotype 1a/1b patients Humans (Phase Ib) [39]
Chimeric HBV/HCV virus‐like particles bearing E1 or E2 /
HCV 1a (JFH1/H77)
E1, E2 1a (JFH1/H77; 7a), 1b (JFH1/J4; UKN5.23), 2a (JFH1 WT; UKN 2a1.2), 3 (JFH1/S52; UKN3A.1.28) New Zealand rabbits [40]
rHCV E1E2 / HCV 1a (HCV-1) E1E2 1a (H77), 2a (J6), 3a (S52), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a (HK6a) Chimpanzees [41]
HCV virus-like particles bearing E1E2 or E1 / HCV 1a (H77) E1, E1E2 1a (H77), 1b (CG1b, CON1), 2a (JFH-1), 2b (UKN2B), 4c (UKN4) Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Human CD46 ± IFNαβR-/- mice
rHCV E1/E2 with MF59C.1 as an adjuvant (oil-in water emulsion) / HCV 1a E1E2 1a (HCV-1, H77), 1b (UKN1B 12.6), 2a (J6), 3a (S52), 4a (UKN4.11.1), 5a (SA13) C57BL/6J mice, macaques (Macaca mulatta), humans (Phase I, NCT00500747) [43,44,45,46]
DNA vaccine expressing HCV Core, E1 and E2 / HCV 1b (CIGB-230) E1, E2, core N/A Humans (Phase I) [47,48,49]
HCV virus‐like particles bearing core, E1, and E2 with AS01B as an adjuvant (a combination of monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 saponin) / HCV 1b (CG1b) E1, E2, core N/A Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) [50]
rHCV E1 with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant / HCV 1b E1 N/A Humans (Phase I) [51]
DNA vaccine expressing HCV E2 / HCV 1a E2 N/A Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) [52]
  1. Δ123: E2‐receptor‐binding domain lacking hypervariable region (HVR) 1 and 2, and the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) (384-408) or replaced with glutathione disulfide linkers (461-485 and570-580); Δ123A7: a disulfide-minimized version that contains seven cysteine to alanine mutations (A7: C452A, C486A, C569A, C581A, C585A, C597A, C652A); HCVcc: cell-cultured viruses; HCVpp: HCV pseudoparticles; N/A: Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies not evaluated; N/D: Origin not indicated