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Table 1 Summary of different miscellaneous nanosensors using optical and magnetic detection method for various targets

From: Advances in sepsis diagnosis and management: a paradigm shift towards nanotechnology

Type of detection Target Components of sensor Limit of detection References
Optical detection C-reaction protein Fluorescent nanosphere (FN) contains 332 ± 8 CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with antibodies to produce immunofluorescent nanosphere (IFN)-based lateral flow test strip 27.8 pM [81]
Optical detection C-reaction protein Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted AuNPs (PMPC-g-AuNPs) 50 ng/mL [82]
Optical detection using novel quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) MRI Uptake of superparamagnetic iron-oxide NPs by macrophages [83]
T2 magnetic resonance Candida spp. Iron oxide nanocrystals embedded in a polymer matrix were conjugated to aminated DNA oligonucleotides 1–3 CFU/ml [79]
Magnetic relaxation switching Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Infra-red (NIR) fluorescent dye loaded onto PEGylated bilirubin (PEG-BR)-coated SPIONs (PEG-BR@SPIONs) 31.49 μM [84]
Combined plasmonic and photoelectronic detection Citrullinated histones (CitH3) Gold nanohemispheres (AuNHs), functionalizing with CitH3 antibodies incorporated with photoconductive channel above molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) 0.87 pg/mL [86]