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Table 2 Overview of key features of various antimicrobial nanoformulations

From: Advances in sepsis diagnosis and management: a paradigm shift towards nanotechnology

Nanosystem Characterization Target pathogens Key findings/ outcomes References
Active Nanocarriers Zeta-potential Shape / Size LC/ EE (%) In vitro In vivo (Model)
Antibiotic nanoformulations
Meropenem CH with tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinker 17.1 ± 2.3 to19.8 ± 2.6 mV Spherical
261.8 ± 37.5 nm
EE = 
71.5–76.3
E. coli
K.pneumoniae
MRSA
MSSA
K. pneumoniae
(Systemic infection/ sepsis in rat)
Two-fold lower MIC
Improved survival
[91]
Vancomycin (VCM) Peptide (CARG)-conjugated Porous silicon nanoparticles  ~ 180 nm LC = 12 S. aureus
MRSA
P. aeruginosa
S. aureus
(Lung infection
model in mice)
Targeted binding to S. aureus by CARG
Reduced systemic dose in vivo
[89]
Ciprofloxacin and TPCA‐1 Block copolymer Biotin-PEGb-PAE
(-g-PEG-b-DSPE)-b-PEG-Biotin
 − 6.81 mV at pH 7.4
 + 7.35 mV at pH 6.5
Spherical 120 nm LC = 
9.2 ± 0.2
EE = 
53.7 ± 1.3
P. aeruginosa P. aeruginosa
(Acute lung bacterial infection in mouse)
Targeted on-demand delivery in response to IMEs
Enhanced therapeutic efficacy and survival
[94]
Sparfloxacin and Tacrolimus γ3 peptide grafted on poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) − 40 mV Spherical 183.7 ± 9.4 nm (SFX 5 mg/ml)
EE = 
84.7 (SFX) 85.6 (TAC)
P. aeruginosa
S. aureus
P. aeruginosa
(Acute lung infection in mice)
Increased binding to inflamed cells by γ3 peptide
Decreased inflammation and immune response in vivo
[95]
Ciprofloxacin Lipid emulsion of chitosan and sodium deoxycholate  + 28.2 ± 2 225 to 325 nm EE = 
93.7 ± 2.3
E. coli E-coli
(Peritonitis or abdominal sepsis model in rats)
Decreased TNF-α and NO production
Improved survival
[97]
Moxifloxacin and Rutin Poly-caprolactone  − 22.63 ± 0.55 mV 173.63 ± 3.90 nm LC = 
7.49 ± 0.31 EE = 
72.64 ± 1.06
E. coli Suppressed LPS released from bacteria [98]
Antimicrobial peptide and other nanoformulations
S-thanatin with levofloxacin Liposome prepared with HSPC, CHO and Ts-PEG2000-DSPE  + 5.3 152.5 ± 3.2 LEV EE = 
76
MDR K. pneumonia MDR K. pneumonia
(Septic shock model in mice)
2–16-dilution lower MIC than free drug
Improved efficacy on bacteria clearance
[101]
Structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers (SNAPPs) Poly(amido amine) Star-shaped S16 = 
7.8 ± 1.2 nm
S32 = 
7.5 ± 1.6 nm
Streptococcus mutans
S. aureus
E. coli
P. aeruginosa
K. pneumoniae
A. baumannii
A. baumannii
(Peritonitis model in mouse)
Superior antibacterial activity against colistin-resistant and MDR pathogens
Higher therapeutic indices
[100]
Antimicrobial peptide and cathepsin B (AMP-CatB) mRNA Vitamin lipid nanoparticles (VLNPs)  ~ 22 mV  ~ 140 nm EE =  ~ 90 MDR
S. aureus
MDR
S. aureus
MDR E. coli
(MDR bacteria-induced sepsis in mice with immune-suppression)
Demonstrated adoptive transfer of MACs
Improved recovery of immune-compromised septic mice
[107]
Mixtures of Carvacrol and Eugenol, Cinnamaldehyde and/or β-Caryophyllene Lipidic nanocapsules − 16 ± 2 mV 66 ± 4 nm LC = 20
EE = 49
A. baumannii A. baumannii
(Pathogen induced sepsis in mice)
Synergistic antimicrobial activities in combination
Improved survival
[109]
Silver based nanoparticles Carbon quantum dots − 52.12 ± 6.81 mV 13.23 ± 4.03 nm S. aureus
E. coli
P. aeruginosa
(High-grade sepsis in mice by Cecal ligation and puncture) Ameliorated inflammation in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidney [112]