Skip to main content

Table 3 Different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action (MOA) exhibited by various nanoformulations

From: Advances in sepsis diagnosis and management: a paradigm shift towards nanotechnology

Nanosystem Size MOA Key findings References
Peptide decorated-gold nanoparticles 13–14 nm Modulate endosomal pH
Blockade of endosomal acidification Inhibits downstream TLR4 signalling pathways, leading to the reduction of NF-kB, IRF3 and MAPK activation
Improved the disease activity index
Ameliorated colonic inflammation in vivo
[119]
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) NP 105–115 nm Inhibited the activation of TLR4/ NF-κB pathway Decreased myocardial inflammatory cytokine expression [127]
High-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles Similar to hHDL LPS toxin scavenging and neutralizing Decreased TLR4 signalling
Inhibited inflammatory response to LPS
[124]
Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles 40–80 nm Suppressions of NF-kB activation and IkBa degradation levels Decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1b) [129]
Cerium oxide nanoparticles Decreased transcriptional action of ROS, iNOS, COX-2, and nuclear factor-kappa light chain, the triggered B cells (NF-kB) Decreased hepatic damage, serum cytokines/ chemokines, and swelling indicators in vivo [128]
Trehalose- and glucose-derived glycoamphiphiles incorporated in Au NP Interference with TLR4 activation and signalling in vitro and in vivo Inhibited LPS-triggered IL-6 production in mice [119]