Skip to main content

Table 2 Treatments (non-FDA approved) which can potentially suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and/or COVID-19 complications (see also, Table 1)

From: Insights to SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, pathophysiology, and rationalized treatments that target COVID-19 clinical complications

Intervention Study type Biologic efficacy References
Induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies
Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine
Gam-COVID-Vac Vaccine
Phase 3 clinical trial (viral two-vector vaccine based on the human adenovirus fused with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2) Unknown [162, 163]
Adsorbed COVID-19 (inactivated) Vaccine
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero cell)
Phase 3 clinical trial (absorbed inactivated SARS-CoV-2) Unknown [164, 165]
mRNA-1273 vaccine Phase 3 clinical trial (mRNA-based vaccine that encodes for a full-length, prefusion stabilized S protein of SARS-CoV-2) Unknown [166]
SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
COV2-2196, COV2-2130 In vitro and in vivo study (mouse) Reduce viral burden and level of inflammation in mouse’s lungs see text
P2C-1F11, P2B-2F6, P2C-1A3 In vitro (antibodies derived from 8 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2) Substantial neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 infection see text
CB6 In vivo (specific human antibodies administrated in rhesus macaques) Prophylactic group: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Treatment group: reduced SARS-CoV-2 titre see text
Soluble angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (decoy for virus)
GSK2586881 Phase 2 clinical trial (recombinant human ACE2 in ventilated patients with ARDS) Unknown [167]
RhACE2 APN01 Ongoing phase 2 clinical trial (recombinant human ACE2) Unknown [168]
Antibodies or small molecules that target ACE2
SSAA09E2 In vitro (small molecule added to 293 T and Vero cells) Inhibits fusion of the SARS-S envelope with the host cellular membrane see text
COV2-2196 COV2-2381 In vivo (monoclonal antibodies administrated in rhesus macaques) Prophylactic group: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection see text
TMRPSS2 protease inhibitors
Camostat mesylate In vitro (lung cell line) Blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung cells see text
Inhibitors of membrane fusion and/or clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Ikarugamycin In vitro (H1299 cells) Acutely inhibits clathrin‐mediated endocytosis (CME) see text
Dynasore, Dyngo 4a, Dyngo 6a In vitro Inhibit specifically dynamin and clathrin-mediated endocytosis see text
Latrunculin b In vitro Inhibits Australian bat lyssavirus G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells through actin depolymerization see text
SSAA09E3 In vitro (small molecule added to 293 T and Vero cells) Prevents fusion of the SARS-CoV-2 membrane with the host cellular membrane see text
Virus’ RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors
Setrobuvir, IDX-184, YAK In vitro Bind to RdRp tightly and hence may contradict the polymerase function see text
Cathepsin L inhibitors
SSAA09E1, Oxocarbazate, MDL-28170, K11777, EST In vitro (293 T cells) Blocks SARS CoV-2 entry see text, [169]
Inhibitors of cellular pathways reshaped by SARS-CoV-2 infection
Cycloheximide In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Inhibits translation elongation and SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
Emetine In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Inhibits the 40S ribosomal protein S14 and SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
Pladienolide B In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Inhibits splicing factor SF3B117 and SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
2-Deoxy-d-glucose In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Blocks glycolysis and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
Ribavirin In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
NMS-873 In vitro
(human Caco2 cells)
Inhibits the AAA ATPase p97 and SARS-CoV-2 replication see text
ANG(1–7) peptide
Angiotensin 1–7, TXA127 Ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial Unknown [170, 171]