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Table 2 Roles of miRNAs in influencing treatment response in breast cancer by regulating autophagy activities (n = 11)

From: Regulation of autophagy by microRNAs in human breast cancer

Treatment types Influence on treatment response miRNA(s) Autophagy activities ( ) Proposed mechanisms/evidences References
Chemotherapy Resistant-promoting miR-25 miR-25 downregulated ULK1 to suppress autophagy and promote epirubicin resistance in breast cancer cells [68]
Sensitivity-promoting miR-27a miR-27a suppressed LC3-II and p62 expressions to inhibit autophagy and sensitized cancer cells to doxorubicin and paclitaxel [82]
miR-129-5p miR-129-5p suppressed HMGB1 to inhibit autophagy and sensitized breast cancer cells to taxol treatment [61]
miR-489 miR-489 downregulated ULK1 to block autophagy and sensitized breast cancer cells to doxorubicin treatment [37]
Endocrine therapy Resistant-promoting miR-23b-3p miR-23b-3p downregulated SLC6A14 to promote autophagy and tamoxifen resistance [75]
miR-21 miR-21 could promote PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to inhibit autophagy and promote resistance towards both tamoxifen and fulvestrant [35]
Sensitivity-promoting miR-101 miR-101 suppressed ATG4D, STMN1 and RAB5A expressions to block autophagy and promote tamoxifen-induced cells death [80]
Endocrine and chemotherapy Sensitivity-promoting miR-125b-5p miR-125b-5p suppressed PAD2 expression to promote both autophagy and apoptosis. This sensitized cancer cells to both tamoxifen and docetaxel [66]
Radiotherapy Sensitivity-promoting miR-26b miR-26b downregulated DRAM1 expression to inhibit autophagy and sensitize breast cancer cells to irradiation [92]
miR-200c miR-200 downregulated UBQLN1 to block autophagy and sensitized breast cancer cells to irradiation [93]
Targeted therapy Sensitivity-promoting miR-567 miR-567 suppressed autophagy by downregulating ATG5 to sensitize cancer cells to trastuzumab treatment [78]
  1. 11 miRNAs were reported to play essential roles in regulating treatment responses in breast cancer by modulating the cellular autophagy activities [35, 37, 93, 61, 66, 68, 75, 78, 80, 82, 92]. The treatment responses which could be modulated by these autophagy-regulating miRNAs include responses towards chemotherapy [37, 61, 66, 6882], endocrine therapy [35, 66, 75, 80], radiotherapy [92, 93] and targeted therapy [78]. Out of these 11 miRNAs, only two miRNAs, namely, miR-23b-3p [75] and miR-125b-5p [66], were shown to upregulate autophagy activities while the rest were demonstrated to inhibit autophagy [35, 37, 61, 68, 78, 80, 82, 92, 93]. Upregulation; Downregulation