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Table 1 Comprehensive list of virus-induced NET formation in vitro and in vivo

From: C-type lectins and extracellular vesicles in virus-induced NETosis

Virus In Vitro In Vivo  
Species Origin of neutrophils Induction of NETs Induction time (hour) Detection of NET structure Species Induction of NETs Induction time Occurred organs Detection of NET
structure
Ref
Influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 (PR8) Mouse, BALB/c BALF from uninfected BALB/c mice Cocultured with influenza- primed LA-4
cells
2.5 IFa Mouse, BALB/c 500 PFU
(i.n.)
6 days post- infection Lung H&E 12
IFb
Mouse,
C57BL/6
BM-derived
neutrophils
BAFL from
infected mice
0.5 IFc Mouse,
C57BL/6
500 PFU
(i.n.)
5 days post-
infection
Lung IFc 13
H3N2
(Phil82)
Human Peripheral blood MOI = 50 3 SYTOX
Green
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30
Human immunodeficiency
virus-1 (HIV-1)
Human Peripheral blood Pseudotyped HIV-1
(1–6 ng/ml)
24 Hoechst N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 15
Myxoma virus (MYXV) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A C57BL/6
mice
1 × 107 PFU
(i.v.)
8 h post infection Liver Intravital images* 19
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Human Peripheral blood MOI = 0.0005–0.005 3 IFd Quant-iT
dsDNA kit
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 17
Hantaan virus (HTNV) Human Peripheral
blood
MOI = 1 6 SYTOX
Green
Human
, infected patients
N/A N/A Kidney and serum IFe ELSIAa 18
Dengue virus (DV)
(serotype 2)
           
Mouse
C57BL/6
BM-derived
neutrophils
  8         
PL046 Human Peripheral
blood
MOI = 5 3 IFf stat1−/−
mice
2 × 105
PFU (i.c./
i.p.)
5 days post infection Spleen IFg 20
NGC-N Mouse
C67BL/6
BM-derived
neutrophils
MOI = 3         
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2
(SARS-CoV-2)
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Human, infected patients N/A N/A serum ELISAb 21
  1. IFa = MPO, phalloidin, DNA; IFb = histone H2B and DNA; IFc = histone H2B, MPO, and DNA; IFd = MPO, elastase, and DNA; IFe = histone, elastase,and DNA; IFf = histone H1, MPO, and DNA; IFg = Cit-Histone H3, MPO,and DNA. ELISAa = dsDNA/histone complex; ELISAb = cell-free DNA, MPO-DNA, and Cit-H3. Intravital images* = histone H2Ax and elastase
  2. NGC-N New Guinea C-N, IF immunofluorescence staining, MPO myeloperoxidase, BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, MOI multiplicity of infection, N/A not available, BM  bone marrow, PFU plaque-forming unit, i.n intranasal injection, i.v intraveseel injection, i.c intracerebral injection, i.p intraperitoneal injection