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Table 1 Regulation of adenosine homeostasis-related proteins in neurodegenerative diseases

From: Emerging roles of dysregulated adenosine homeostasis in brain disorders with a specific focus on neurodegenerative diseases

Disease Component Effect Model Clinical (C)/Preclinical (P) References
AD ADA Up Activity in AD patients C [8]
   Up Thy-Tau22 mouse model P [46]
  ADK Up Protein level in AD patients C [25]
  CD39 Up APP/PS1 mouse model P [19]
   Up Thy-Tau22 mouse model P [46]
  CD73 Up Activity in β-amyloid (Aβ1-42)-based mouse model of early AD P [93]
   Up Thy-Tau22 mouse model P [46]
  AMPK Up AMPKα1 in AD patients C [262]
   Down AMPKα2 in AD patients C [262]
   Up AMPKα1 in Tg19959 mouse model P [262]
   Up Activity in AD patients C [162]
   Up Activity in APP/PS1 mouse model P [162]
   Up Activity in Thy-Tau22 mouse model P [46]
   Down Activity in APP/PS1 mouse model P [232]
   Down Activity in STZ-treated mouse model P [232]
PD ADA Up Transcript level in the frontal cortex of PD patients at stages 3–4 C [90]
   Up Activity in the serum from PD patients C [51, 52]
   Up Activity in the striatum of MPTP mouse model P [114]
  CD73 Up Transcript level in the frontal cortex of PD patients at stages 5–6 C [90]
   Up Protein level in striatal synaptosome of a 6-OHDA rat model P [38]
   Up Protein level in 6-OHDA-treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells P [38]
  AMPK Down Total and phosphorylated levels in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice and in MPP+-treated PC12 cells P [215]
   Unchanged Total and phosphorylated levels in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice P [249]
   Up Phosphorylated level in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice P [149]
   Up Phosphorylated level in the substantia nigra of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and of MPTP-treated and α-synuclein-overexpressing mice P [126]
HD ENT1 Up HD patients C [99]
   Up R6/2 mouse model P [127]
   Up Hdh150Q mouse model P [127]
   Up zQ175 mouse model P [99]
  ENT2 Up R6/2 mouse model P [127]
   Up Hdh150Q mouse model P [127]
  ADA Up Activity in HEK 293 T cell line transfected with mutant exon 1 of the HTT gene P [217]
  ADK Up R6/2 mouse model P [127]
  CD39 Down Activity in HEK 293 T cell line transfected with mutant exon 1 of the HTT gene P [217]
  CD73 Down Activity in HEK 293 T cell line transfected with mutant exon 1 of the HTT gene P [217]
  AMPK Up Activity in HD patients C [125]
   Up Activity in R6/2 mouse model P [125]
ALS ADA Down ALS patients-derived astrocyte P [7]
  ADK Up Activity in reactive astrocytes of ALS patients C [25]
  CD39 Down Transcript level in ALS patients C [33]
   Down Transcript and protein level in SOD1(G93A) mouse model P [33, 230]
  CD73 Up SOD1(G93A) mouse model P [87]
  AMPK Down ALS patients-derived BM-MSC P [256]
   Up Activity in ALS patients C [155, 156]
   Up Activity in SOD1(G93A) mouse model P [153, 257]
   Up Activity in TDP-43 mouse model P [155]
Epilepsy ENT1 Up Protein level in neocortex of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy C [248]
   Up Protein level in the hippocampus of a pilocarpine-induced rat model P [248]
  ADK Up Protein level in temporal lobe of patients with epilepsy C [13, 165]
   Up Protein level in the hippocampus and astrocytes of a kainite mouse model P [96]
   Up Protein level in the hippocampus, cortex, and astrocytes of rats with status epilepticus P [13]
  AMPK Down Protein level in the neocortex of epileptic patients C [252]
   Down Protein level in the hippocampus of pentylenetetrazol- and kainic acid-induced mouse models P  
  1. 6-OHDA, 6-hydroxydopamine; ADA, adenosine deaminase; ADK, adenosine kinase; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; BM-MSC, Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; ENT1, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1; MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; MPP+, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; STZ, Streptozotocin