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Table 1 In vitro experiments

From: Multidimensional insights into the repeated electromagnetic field stimulation and biosystems interaction in aging and age-related diseases

Biological effects EMF Bio-system Field strength Exposure time References #
HSF1 activation 60 Hz Human
HL60 cells
0.8µT, 80µT 20 min [6]
Mitochondrial activity 50 Hz Human
SH-SY5Y
100-μT 24 h [7]
ROS production 900 MHz Rat astroglia 10 V/m 5, 10, 20 min [8]
Blastogenesis 3 Hz Human lymphocytes 60 G 72 h [9]
45Ca incorporation 30 Hz Human lymphocytes 0.15 mT   [10]
Channel-activity 42.25 GHz Kidney cells 2 mW/cm2
continuous
20–30 min [11]
Voltage‐gated calcium ELF and Microwave Human and animal cells Pulsed and continuous Seconds to min [12]
Growth-related 60 Hz Human lymphoma 10 mV/cm
continuous
1 h [13]
RNA synthesis 60 Hz HL-60 cells 5.7 µT continuous 20 min [14]
DNA synthesis 15 Hz to 4 kHz Human fibroblasts 0.023–5.6 G, sinusoidal 1,2,24 h [15]
DNA synthesis 75 Hz Human chondrocytes 2.3 mT
pulsed
6 to 30 h [16]
Expression of microRNA 75 Hz Mononuclear cell from AD 3 mT
pulsed
15, 30, 60 min [17]
Expression of microRNA 50 Hz Mouse GC–2 cells 1 mT, 2 mT and 3 mT
pulsed
72 h (5 min on/10 min off) [18]
reduction of oxidative stress 75 Hz Human
SH-SY5Y
2 mT
pulsed
10 min, 4 times a week [19]
reduction of oxidative stress 60 Hz Human
SH-SY5Y
4 to 10 mT
continuous
20 min [20]
expression of hsp70 60 Hz Human breast cells 3 mT continuous 1 to 3 h [21]
Cytoprotection 60 Hz Rodent cardiomyocytes 8μT 30 min [22]
Ubiquitin–proteasome system 50 Hz Caco 2 cells 1 mT 24–72 h [23]
Ubiquitin–proteasome system 1.95 MHz KB cells 3 mW/g 1, 2, 3 h [24]
Ubiquitin–proteasome system 100 mT Rat hippocampal cells 100 mT
continuous
15 min [25]
Autophagy-lysosome systems 75 Hz SH-SY5Y cells 2 mT
pulsed
1 h [26]
Inflammation 27.12 MHz Human dermal fibroblasts 591 V/m
pulsed
30 min [27]
Cellular senescence 50 MHz Mouse fibroblasts 0.5 W/Kg continuous 30 min/d  
β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition 64 MHz Human neurons 0.4-to 0.9 continuous 1 h/d × 21 days