Increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK proteins in RAW264.7 cells pre-incubated with B19-VP1u. The representative immunoblotting results for (A) ERK1/2 and (B) JNK proteins hybridized with mouse antibodies against phosphorylated -ERK1/2 and -JNK. The quantified results are shown in the lower panel. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. C, U, D, I1, and I2 indicate the experimental groups of control, B19-VP1u, B19VP1uD175A, U0126, and SP600125. ** and ## indicate significant differences as compared to the control or the VP1u group, respectively.