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Table 1 Mechanisms of hepatic tumor-immune escape.

From: Immunotherapy for liver tumors: present status and future prospects

Attack Defense
System Mechanism Ref. System Mechanism Ref.
Fas/FasL T-cell apoptosis 66 Tregs Immunosuppression 73
PD-1/PD-1L T-cell apoptosis 69 MHC-I Antigen presentation 75
Galectin-1 T-cell apoptosis 72 B7-1/B7-2 Antigen presentation 76
    IDO Immunosuppression 82
  1. Two main strategies to escape from the immune response attack and defense have been demonstrated for HCC in experimental and/or clinical setting. Fas: CD95; FasL: CD95L; PD-1: programmed death-1; PD-1L: programmed death-1 ligand; Tregs: Regulatory T cells; IDO: Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase.