Preparation of the collagen implant (Methods section: Preparation of the collagen implant). (A) Preparation of the collagen implant. The collagen solution was placed in the syringe pump with the needle charged at 6 kV with respect to the collector. The nanofibers were harvested and mixed with fresh collagen solution incubated for final polymerization. This hybridized collagen gel was dried and cut into rectangular strips to form several prostheses which were cross-linked, sterilized and then dried. (B,C) Un-aligned electrospun collagen fibers constructed by electrospinning without dual plate device (SB = 1.7 μm). (D) Aligned electrospun collagen fibers were produced but the gap between the copper strips was 2 cm (SB = 2.2 μm). (E) Aligned electrospun collagen fibers were produced and the gap between the copper strips was 1 cm (SB = 2.2 μm). (F) Aligned internal architecture of the polymerized collagen fibers in the gel (SB = 15 μm). (G) The composition of the collagen implant at larger magnification (SB = 5 μm). (H) Transverse section of the collagen implant after crosslinking. Most of the implant is filled with the polymerized collagen fibers while little porosity is existed between these fibers (SB = 15 μm). (I) Surface of the collagen implant after cross linking (SB = 100 μm).