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Table 2 Natural withdrawal behaviors of offspring within 24 h after birth

From: Beneficial effects of co-treatment with dextromethorphan on prenatally methadone-exposed offspring

  Control Methadone Methadone + DM DM
Natural withdrawal symptoms   Count (Mean ± SEM)  
Head moves 10.6 ± 2.5 22.8 ± 6.7 23.3 ± 2.9 44.3 ± 11.1**
Paws moving 1.7 ± 0.2 44.8 ± 12.5*** 8.2 ± 2.6## 14.1 ± 4.0##
Stretching 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.17 ± 0.17
Twisting 4.6 ± 1.7 3.2 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.4 0.8 ± 0.5
Rolling 0.4 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.5 0.0 ± 0.0 1.3 ± 1.0
Walking 0.0 ± 0.0 0.17 ± 0.17 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0
Total score 17.3 ± 4.0 71.8 ± 17.8* 38.3 ± 4.2 60.5 ± 14.0*
  1. Natural withdrawal behaviors of the offspring were observed and counted for 15 min within 24 h after birth. Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M. (n ≥ 11). One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test were used to analyze the data. *P < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001, compared to the control group; ##p < 0.01, compared to the methadone group.