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Table 3 Lipid profile and insulin resistance index

From: High fat diet-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are attenuated by N-acetylneuraminic acid in rats

Rat groups Chol. (mmol/L) Trig. (mmol/L) LDL (mmol/L) HDL (mmol/L) Insulin (pg/mL) HOMA-IR Adiponectin (ng/mL)
Normal 1.55 ± 0.43a 0.62 ± 0.15a 0.28 ± 0.11a 1.18 ± 0.35a 495 ± 51.3a 1.91 ± 0.23a 72.9 ± 0.7a
Untreated control 7.47 ± 1.13b 1.21 ± 0.38b 4.98 ± 1.03b 1.05 ± 0.13a 513.3 ± 38.8a 2.46 ± 0.22b 61.8 ± 6.8b
(HFD)
HFD + SIM 4.99 ± 1.11c 0.63 ± 0.18a 3.6 ± 1.1b 1.04 ± 0.17a 602.1 ± 145.7a 2.83 ± 0.79a,b 53.3 ± 0.4c
HFD + SAL 5.68 ± 2.18b,c 0.54 ± 0.07a 4.48 ± 1.81b 1.04 ± 0.28a 521.25 ± 118.65a 2.12 ± 0.56a,b 68.1 ± 1.0b,d
HFD + SAH 5.05 ± 2.07b,c 0.54 ± 0.07a 3.67 ± 1.58b 1.08 ± 0.27a 512.77 ± 90.3a 2.08 ± 0.42a,b 73.9 ± 5.8a,d
  1. Data represent mean ± SD (n = 6). The high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia attenuated by sialic acid supplementation, although it was only statistically different for the triglycerides (p < 0.05). Serum insulin levels were similar among all groups, but the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) indicated better insulin sensitivity in the sialic acid groups in comparison with the untreated control group. High fat diet-induced hypoadiponectinemia was also attenuated by sialic acid supplementation. For each parameter in a column, different superscript letters indicate statistical difference between any 2 groups (p < 0.05) using Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Groups are the same as Table 1. HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HFD: high fat diet; HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; Chol: cholesterol; SAH: high dose sialic acid; SAL: low dose sialic acid; SIM: Simvastatin; Trig: triacylglycerol