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Table 2 Clinical studies utilizing MSCs for skeletal tissue repair & regeneration

From: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics–an update

Type of Repair Studied By Patients Cell type Delivery route Outcomes
Thoraco-lumbar spine fracture Faundez et al., 2006 [131] 4 Autologous bone marrow aspirate seeded on MCM coated with hydroxyapatite Surgical implantation Both visual and histological analysis confirmed replacement of resorbable matrix with new bone
Mandibular defects Ueda et al., 2008 [116] 14 3.5 ml of mixture of PRP, MSCs (1.0 × 107cells/ml), 500 μl of thrombin/calcium chloride mixture Injectable bone grafts via syringes Successful induction of new bone occurred and osseointegration within short period of time that can reduce the burden of patients
Posterior spinal defects Gan et al., 2008 [127] 41 MSC suspension - Evaluation of patients after 34.5 months showed results of satisfactory spinal in 95.1 % cases
Degenerative disc defects Orozco et al., 2011 [133] 10 Autologous MSCs Intra-articular injection In addition to safety and clinical efficacy, MSCs therapy rapidly settled low back pain and disability with intact normal biomechanics
Anterior maxillary cleft defects Behnia et al., 2012 [124] 3 MSCs mounted on biphasic scaffolds with PDGF Surgical implantation Computed tomography scans showed 51.3 % fill of the bone defect calculated 3 months post-operation
Knee cartilage defects Lee et al., 2012 [105] 70 Combination of Arthroscopic microfracture, MSCs and hyaluronic acid Intra-articular injections Final follow up of 24.5 months revealed considerable improvements in Lysholm knee scale, mean IKDC and visual analog pain scores. Advantages included minimal invasiveness and validated safety
Intertrochanteric Hip fractures Torres et al., 2014 [115] 15 Autologous bone marrow stem cells concentrate Surgical implantation Weight bearing ability of hip and femur improved after 90 days
  1. IKDC international knee documentation committee, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, PDGF platelet derived growth factor, PRP platelet rich plasma, MCM mineralized collagen matrix