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Table 1 Levels of Serum VIP and cytokines in each group (\( \overline{x} \)±SD, n = 12)

From: Vasoactive intestinal peptide alleviates osteoarthritis effectively via inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway

Group VIP (pg/mL) TNF-α (pg/mL) IL-2 (pg/mL) IL-4 (pg/mL)
Sham+NC plasmid 68.8 ± 9.7 106.1 ± 8.3 130.3 ± 10.5 41.2 ± 9.3
Sham+VIP plasmid 73.4 ± 11.6 101.3 ± 10.8 122.1 ± 9.9 46.7 ± 8.4
OA + NC plasmid 29.5 ± 12.4* 184.9 ± 8.6* 174.3 ± 12.7* 14.7 ± 6.6*
OA + VIP plasmid 57.6 ± 10.1# 112.8 ± 10.2# 131.4 ± 13.4# 43.8 ± 8.7#
  1. Compared with Sham+NC plasmid group, *P < 0.05; Compared with OA + NC plasmid group, #P < 0.05