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Table 1 Pharmacological effects of phytocompounds from R. officinalis L reported in the literature

From: Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent

Phytocompound Pharmacological effect Reference
Caffeic acid a. Antibacterial [168]
b. Antioxidant [169]
c. Inhibitory effect of tumor cell immigration [170]
d. Inhibitory effect of tumor cell proliferation [171]
e. Protective effect of transplanted livers [172]
f. Apoptotic effect on tumor cells [173]
Carnosic acid a. Antiproliferative [174]
b. Protective effect of photoreceptor cells [175]
c. Antitumor [176]
d. Anti-inflammatory [177]
e. Inhibitory effect of digestive enzymes (lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) [178]
f. Suppressive effect of lipogenesis [179]
Chlorogenic acid a. Antioxidant [180]
b. Protective effect against lead-induced renal damage [181]
c. Protective effect against colitis [182]
d. Anti-infective [183]
Oleanolic acid a. Antiviral [184]
b. Protective effect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis [185]
c. Antiproliferative [186]
d. Antitumor [187]
e. Antioxidant [188]
Rosmarinic acid a. Neuroprotective [189]
b. Protective effect against nicotine-induced atherosclerosis [190]
c. Complementary agent to the anticancer chemotherapy [191]
d. Anxiety control [192]
e. Antiproliferative [193]
f. Antiviral [194]
Ursolic acid a. Cytotoxic for tumor cells [195]
b. Anticancer [196]
c. Inducer of osteoblastic activity and reducer of osteoclastic activity [197]
d. Hypouricemic [198]
e. Proapoptotic [199]
f. Inductor of insulin sensitivity [200]
g. Protective effect against diabetic nephropathy [201]
h. Reducer of weight gain and atherosclerosis [202]
Alpha-pinene a. Antibacterial [203]
b. Antimicrobial [204]
c. Protective effect against aspirin-induced oxidative stress [205]
d. Protective effect against peptic ulcer [206]
Camphor a. Immunomodulatory [207]
b. Antiproliferative [208]
c. Hypoglycemic [209]
d. Antimicrobial [210]
e. Antifungal, antihyphal, and antibiofilm [211]
Carnosol a. Antiproliferative [212]
b. Protective effect against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury [213]
c. Antifungal [214]
d. Proapoptotic and proautophagic [215]
e. Anti-inflammatory [216]
f. Anti-atopic dermatitis [217]
g. Antidiabetic [218]
Eucalyptol a. Proapoptotic [219]
b. Antibiofilm [220]
c. Control of infection and inflammation [221]
d. Anti-inflammatory [222]
e. Antinociceptive [223]
f. Antiviral [224]
Rosmanol a. Antinociceptive, antidepressant, and anxiolytic [82]
b. Anticancer [225]
Eugenol a. Acaricidal [226]
b. Antifungal [227]
c. Chemotherapeutic on cervical cancer cells [228]
d. Antiproliferative [229]
e. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative [230]
Luteolin a. Anti-inflammatory [231]
b. Anti-atopic dermatitis [232]
c. Proapoptotic and proautophagic [233]
d. Antimicrobial [234]
e. Antiproliferative [235]
f. Protection of microglia against rotenone-induced toxicity [236]
g. Inhibitory effect of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis [237]