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Table 3 Pharmacological effects of R. officinalis L. summarized in this Review

From: Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent

Pharmacological effect Product from R. officinalis L. Main findings Reference
Cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction Supplementation with leaves a. Attenuation of cardiac remodeling
b. Improvement of metabolism and reduction of oxidative stress
Control of body weight and dyslipidemia Aqueous extract a. Inhibition of the body weight gain
b. Scavenging of free radical
c. Inhibition of gentamicin (GM)-induced hepatotoxicity
d. Antioxidant action
e. DNA-protective effect
Neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia Hydro-alcoholic extract a. Absence of dyslipidemia effect
b. Reduction of acute ischemic stroke lesion
Antinociceptive effect Ethanolic extract Pain control [77]
Mono- and polymicrobial biofilms reduction Glycolic extract a. Antimicrobial effect
b. Action on monomicrobial biofilms of C. albicans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. mutans, and P. aeruginosa
b. Action on polymicrobial biofilms formed by C. albicans with each bacterium
Hepato-nephrotoxicity inhibition of the lead Ethanolic extract a. Protection of structure and function of liver and kidney against lead
b. Stabilization of antioxidant proteins
Stress relief in situation of real danger Hydro-alcoholic extract a. Anxiolytic effect
b. Stress control
Human tumor cells proliferation inhibition Glycolic extract Breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) [91]
Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts Epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) and histiocytic lymphoma cell line (U-937) [152]
Aqueous extract Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (KYSE30) and gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) [153]
Methanolic extract Lung carcinoma (A549) [154]