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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and main clinical features of Sarcoidosis

From: Host-microbe interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical course of sarcoidosis

Demographic data Main characteristics Reference
Gender No predominance  
Age at onset (years) Any age
Peaks at 25~40 years.
Nearly 30% of cases in older than 60
Ethnicity More common in northern Europeans (60 per 100,000).
Less common in Asians
(1.3–2.17 per 100,000)
In the USA
(35.5 per 100,000 in Afro-Americans 10.9 per 100,000 in Caucasians)
([3]; [15])
Clinical findings
 Constitutional manifestations Asymptomatic (30~60% of cases)
Malaise, Fever, Anorexia, weight loss
([15]; [86]; [102]; [109])
 Pulmonary Sarcoidosis At least 90% of affected individuals have lung involvement
-Most patients are asymptomatic.
-Primarily manifests as hilar or mediastinal adenopathy
-Some patients present with interstitial lung disease
-Fibrosis of the lung (20% of patients)
-Pulmonary hypertension (in 5% of cases)
([15]; [84]; [102])
 Skin sarcoidosis Skin lesions (found in 20~35% of patients) and can cause:
papules or
Erythema nodosum
([44]; [67])
 Löfgren syndrome Occurs more often in Scandinavian.
Fever, Enlarged lymph nodes, Arthritis and erythema nodosum
[87, 100]
 Ocular sarcoidosis Can affect any part of the eye and may cause: Uveitis, Scleritis, Conjunctival-granuloma, Eyelid abnormalities, Optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation ([70]; [115])
 Musculoskeletal Infrequent May cause:
Nonspecific arthralgia, Polyarthritis (acute or chronic)
Sarcoid myopathy (muscle weakness, muscle pain, or muscle nodules)
 Cardiac sarcoidosis Infrequent.
Most commonly manifests with arrhythmias
(tachycardia or heart block).
Less commonly:
Pericardial effusion or myocardial granulomas leading to cardiac fibrosis
([63]; [86]; [132])
 Neurosarcoidosis Not well characterized due to its rarity. Patients may present with:
Intracranial or spinal mass lesions
Optic neuritis
Facial mononeuropathies
Myopathy and peripheral neuropathy