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Table 7 Basal characteristics of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients stratified by the presence or absence of multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms

From: The functional roles of IGF-1 variants in the susceptibility and clinical outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury

CharacteristicsPatients without any neuropsychiatric symptomscPatients with multiple neuropsychiatric symptomsc
Number of subjects6118
Gender: Female, no. (%)39(63.9)16 (88.9)
Age (years)a37.21 ± 15.0442.22 ± 16.06
 Range20~8320~75
Cause of injury, no. (%)
 Transportation accidents31 (50.8)8 (44.4)
 Falls22 (36.1)7 (38.9)
 Other8 (13.1)3 (16.7)
GCSb15 [15~15]15 [15~15]
GOSEb8 [7~8]6 [6~7]
BAIb2 [1~4]18 [12~26.75]
BDIb2 [1~5]17.5 [14.25~19]
DHIb4 [0~16]52 [38.5~65.5]
PSQIb5 [4~6]11 [10~14]
Serum IGF-1 (ng/mL)a177.7 ± 83.40147.4 ± 69.87
  1. amean ± standard deviation. bmedian [interquartile range]. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, GOSE Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, DHI Dizziness Handicap Inventory, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1. cPatients without any neuropsychiatric symptoms were indicated by lower scores on all questionnaires (BAI ≤7, BDI ≤9, DHI ≤30, and PSQI ≤8); Patients with multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms were indicated by higher scores on all questionnaires (BAI > 7, BDI > 9, DHI > 30, and PSQI > 8)