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Table 2 Strength of biomarkers in predicting radiation sensitivity in NSCLC

From: Precision radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

Types of biomarkers Outcome predictors Reference Strength Category
 Genomics Radiosensitiviy Index (RSI) [64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72] A
Genomic-adjusted radiation dose (GARD) [73] B
Lung adenocarcinoma associated gene: KRAS [114,115,116,117] B
Squamous cell carcinoma associated genes: KEAP1, NFE2L2 [121] C
DNA repair genes: ATM and other mutated genes: PTEN, RB1, TP53 … [74, 75] C
 SNPs DNA repair gene sites: XRCC1, BRCA1, and ERCC1 in predicting radiation response [76,77,78] C
SNPs in predicting radiation related toxicity
DNA repair gene sites: ATM, RAD51, XRCC family, LIG4, MTHFR
Inflammatory gene sites: TGFβ1
Immune modulated gene sites: CBLB
[84,85,86, 88]
 Epigenetics unmethylated IGFBP-3 predicting radiation response [94] C
miRNAs level in predicting radiation response [95,96,97] C
 Proteome /Metabolome Serum inflammatory biomarkers in predicting radiation induced toxicity
IL-1, KL-6, IL-6, PDGF, TGFα, TGFβ, IL-8
CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL2 (MCP-1), eotaxin, and TIMP-1
[85, 99]
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic markers in predicting lung fibrosis
C4BPA, VTN, α2M, CO4A, CO5
[101,102,103] B
Serum markers in predicting SABR outcome
neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), high neutrophil count
[104] C
 CT scan Post SABR local recurrence prediction: Enlarging opacity at 12 months after SABR Bulging margin; loss of linear margin, air bronchogram loss [25,26,27] A
Combined radiomic features in predicting post SABR recurrence and radiadiation [30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37] B
Combined radiomic features in predicting radiation pneumonitis [38,39,40,41] B
 PET FDG-PET: Max SUV, metabolic volume, total lesion glycolysis in predicting treatment response [43,44,45,46,47] A
FLT-PET change in predicting tumor response [50,51,52,53] B
F-MISO PET in predicting radioresistant area for dose escalation [56,57,58,59] B
Dosiomics Combined 3D dosiomitc information in prediction GI, GU and lung toxicity [60, 61] B
  1. Abbreviations: NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer. CT Computed tomography. PET Positron emission tomography. SUV Standard uptake volume. SABR Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. SNP Single nucleotide polymorphisms