Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical trials of SARS, MERS and COVID-19 vaccines

From: Coronavirus vaccine development: from SARS and MERS to COVID-19

Platform Vaccine Group Status Ref
SARS Vaccine Clinical Trials
Inactivated virus Inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine (ISCV) Sinovac Phase I, completed Lin et al. (2007) [110]
DNA vaccine VRC-SRSDNA015-00-VP NIAID Phase I, completed Martin et al. (2008) [65]
MERS Vaccine Clinical Trials
DNA vaccine GLS-5300 (INO-4700) GeneOne Life Science/Inovio Pharmaceuticals/International Vaccine Institute Phase I, completed Modjarrad et al. (2019) [69]
DNA vaccine GLS-5300 (INO-4700) GeneOne Life Science/Inovio Pharmaceuticals/
International Vaccine Institute
Phase I/IIa, completed NCT03721718
Viral vector vaccine MVA-MERS-S CTC North GmbH & Co. KG Phase I, completed Koch et al. (2020) [102]
Viral vector vaccine MVA-MERS-S_DF1 CTC North GmbH & Co. KG Phase Ib, not yet recruiting NCT04119440
Viral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 MERS University of Oxford Phase I, recruiting Folegatti et al. (2020) [98]
Viral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 MERS King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/University of Oxford Phase I, recruiting NCT04170829
Viral vector vaccine BVRS-GamVac-Combi Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology/Acellena Contract Drug Research and Development Phase I/II, recruiting NCT04128059
Viral vector vaccine BVRS-GamVac Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology Phase I/II, recruiting NCT04130594
Platform Vaccine Vaccine type Group Status Ref
COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trials
Protein subunit NVX-CoV2373 SARS-CoV-2 rS/Matrix-M1 Adjuvant Novavax Phase III Keech et al. (2020) [132]
RNA mRNA-1273 LNP-encapsulated mRNA Moderna/NIAID Phase III Jackson et al. (2020) [140]
Anderson et al. (2020) [141]
RNA BNT162b1
LNP-mRNAs BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer Phase III Mulligan et al. (2020) [144]
Sahin et al. (2020) [145]
Walsh et al. (2020) [146]
Viral vector AZD1222 ChAdOx1-S University of Oxford/AstraZeneca Phase III Folegatti et al. (2020) [99]
Viral vector Ad5-nCoV Adenovirus Type 5 CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology Phase III Zhu et al. (2020) [92]
Zhu et al. (2020) [93]
Viral vector Gam-COVID-Vac Adeno-based (rAd26-S + rAd5-S) Gamaleya Research Institute Phase III Logunov et al. (2020) [151]
Viral vector Ad26.COV2.S Adeno-based Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Phase III NCT04505722
Inactivated virus Adsorbed COVID-19 (inactivated) Vaccine inactivated Sinovac Phase III NCT04456595
Inactivated virus Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell) Inactivated Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Phase III Xia et al. (2020) [154]
Inactivated virus BBIBP-CorV Inactivated Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Phase III Xia et al. (2020) [156]
ChiCTR2000034780 NCT04560881
Protein subunit Recombinant new coronavirus vaccine (CHO cell) Adjuvanted recombinant RBD-Dimer Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical/Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Phase II NCT04466085
RNA CVnCoV mRNA Curevac Phase II NCT04515147
Protein subunit KBP-COVID-19 S protein RBD-based Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc Phase I/II NCT04473690
Protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Adjuvanted S protein Sanofi Pasteur/GSK Phase I/II NCT04537208
RNA ARCT-021 mRNA Arcturus/Duke-NUS Phase I/II NCT04480957
DNA INO-4800 DNA plasmid with electroporation Inovio Pharmaceuticals/International Vaccine Institute Phase I/II NCT04447781
DNA AG0301-COVID19 Adjuvanted DNA plasmid Osaka University/AnGes/Takara Bio Phase I/II NCT04463472
DNA nCov Vaccine DNA plasmid Cadila Healthcare Limited Phase I/II CTRI/2020/07/026352
DNA GX-19 DNA Vaccine Genexine Consortium Phase I/II NCT04445389
Inactivated BBV152A
Inactivated Bharat Biotech Phase I/II NCT04471519
Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Inactivated Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Phase I/II NCT04470609
Inactivated QazCovid-in Inactivated Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan Phase I/II NCT04530357
VLP RBD SARS-CoV-2 HBsAg VLP RBD-HBsAg VLPs SpyBiotech/Serum Institute of India Phase I/II ACTRN12620000817943
Protein subunit SCB-2019 Adjuvanted S protein Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax Phase I NCT04405908
Protein subunit COVAX-19 S protein with Advax-SM adjuvant Vaxine Pty Ltd/Medytox Phase I NCT04453852
Protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp vaccine Molecular clamp stabilized S protein with MF59 adjuvant University of Queensland/CSL/Seqirus Phase I ACTRN12620000674932p
Protein subunit MVC-COV1901 S-2P protein + CpG 1018 Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation/NIAID/Dynavax Phase I NCT04487210
Protein subunit Soberana 01 S protein RBD with Adjuvant Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, Cuba Phase I IFV/COR/04
Protein subunit EpiVacCorona Adjuvanted peptide antigen FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo Phase I NCT04527575
Protein subunit Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine S protein RBD (Sf9 cells) West China Hospital, Sichuan University Phase I ChiCTR2000037518
Protein subunit IMP (CoVac-1) Multipeptide cocktail of SARS-CoV-2 HLA-DR peptides University Hospital Tuebingen Phase I NCT04546841
Protein subunit UB-612 S1-RBD-protein COVAXX Phase I NCT04545749
RNA LNP-nCoVsaRNA self-amplifying ribonucleic acid (saRNA) encoding S protein Imperial College London Phase I ISRCTN17072692
RNA SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine mRNA encoding S protein RBD People's Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotech Phase I ChiCTR2000034112
Viral vector hAd5-S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine hAd5 Spike (S) + Nucleocapsid (N) ImmunityBio, Inc. & NantKwest Inc Phase I NCT04591717
Viral vector GRAd-COV2 Replication defective Simian Adenovirus (GRAd) ReiThera/LEUKOCARE/Univercells Phase I NCT04528641
Viral vector Ad5-nCoV Ad5-based CanSino Biological Inc/Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, PLA of China Phase I NCT04552366
Viral vector VXA-CoV2-1 dsRNA-adjuvanted Ad5 Vaxart Phase I NCT04563702
Viral vector MVA-SARS-2-S MVA + spike protein (S) Ludwig-Maximilians - University of Munich Phase I NCT04569383
Viral vector V590 VSV + S protein Merck Sharp & Dohme/IAVI Phase I NCT04569786
Viral vector TMV-083 Measles-vector based Institute Pasteur/Themis/Univ. of Pittsburg CVR/Merck Sharp & Dohme Phase I NCT04497298
Viral vector DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1 Intranasal flu-based-RBD Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy/Xiamen University Phase I ChiCTR2000037782
Inactivated inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Inactivated Beijing Minhai Biotechnology Phase I ChiCTR2000038804
VLP Recombinant Coronavirus-Like Particle COVID 19 Vaccine CpG 1018- or AS03-adjuvanted Plant-derived VLP Medicago Inc Phase I NCT04450004