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Table 1 Vaccine Candidates Currently Being Developed

From: Better influenza vaccines: an industry perspective

Category Sponsor/ company Strategy Phase Mechanism and potency assay Reference
HA protein-based vaccine Novavax, Inc. HA Rosettes, HA nanoparticles, VLP with Matrix-MTM adjuvant I/II Particle format for potency, multiple strains mixed or sequential delivery; HAI and MN assay [45,46,47]
NIH, GSK, and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai HA stem or head-stem chimera I bnAbs (no HAI) and ADCC; intranasal influenza challenge [48,49,50,51]
Academia Sinica and OPKO Monoglycosylated HA as universal flu vaccine, exposing the conserved domain to elicit bnAbs preclinical Broad cross-reactive Ab; HAI and MN assay [52,53,54]
Epitope-peptides based vaccine BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd HA, NP, M1 peptides II/III Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) response [55,56,57,58]
PepTcell.Ltd FLU-V II Cross-reactive T-cell responses, and mucosal immunity; intranasal influenza challenge [59,60,61,62,63]
Live attenuated virus vaccine CodageniX CodaVax Live-attenuated and single-round whole virus I/II Additional antigens, T cell responses, and mucosal immunity; intranasal influenza challenge [64,65,66]
FluGen M2SR I/II T cell responses, and mucosal immunity; intranasal influenza challenge [67, 68]
DNA based vaccine Inovio RNA, DNA, or vector subunit delivery I Gene delivery for CTL and Ab [69,70,71,72]
M2-based protein vaccine Acambis/Sanofi Pasteur M2 ectodomain I/II bnAbs; ADCC (no NT); intranasal influenza challenge [73, 74]