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Table 1 Summary of some important miRNAs modulating Hepatitis C and B and HIV-1 infection by targeting host factors

From: Mammalian microRNA: an important modulator of host-pathogen interactions in human viral infections

miRNAs Targets Actions
Hepatitis C virus
 miR-21 IFN1 Suppress viral replication
 miR-130a HCV entry
 miR-21/miR-134/miR-320c/miR-483-5p NFkB and PI3K-Akt Inhibit NFkB and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
 miR-196 HMOX1 Increase replication
 miR-279 Lipid metabolism Inhibit replication
 miR-155 wnt signaling Immune defense against the virus
Hepatitis B virus
 miR-122 upregulation of HMOX1 Decrease virus level in cell
 miR-501 HBxIP  
 miR-372/373 NFIB Promotes replication
 miR-155 IFN1 Suppress HBV disease pathogenesis
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1
 miR-27b Cyclin T1 Prevent the activation of CD4+ cells
 miR-155 TLR3/Lymphocytes/DC Reduces HIV-1 infection
3′ UTR of HDFs; LEDGF/p75, ADAM10, NUP 153 Decrease HIV replication
 miR-146a CXCR4 Prevents HIV-1 entry
 miR-132 MeCP-2 Enhances HIV-1 infection
 miR-217 and miR-34a SIRT1 Enhances HIV-1 tat-mediated trans-activation
 miR-182 NAMPT Enhances HIV-1 tat-mediated trans-activation
 miR-34a PNUTS Promotes HIV-1 transcription
 miR-17/92 cluster and miR-20a PCAF Decrease susceptibility to HIV-1 infection
  1. DC dendritic cells, SIRT1 Sirtuin 1, NAMPT Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, LEDGF Lens Epithelium-derived Growth factor, ADAM10 a disintegrin and metalloprotease, MeCP2 methyl CpG binding protein 2, HDF HIV dependency factors, nup153 Nuclear pore complex protein Nup153, HBx interacting protein, NFkB nuclear factor kappa B. IFNI Interferon I, HMOX1 Heme oxygenase 1, PNUTS phosphatase 1 nuclear-targeting subunit, PCAF p300-CREB binding protein associated factor