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Table 1 Human PSC-derived 3D brain organoid models

From: 3D brain Organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells: promising experimental models for brain development and neurodegenerative disorders

Brain region in organoid Type of PSCs Patterning factor Extracellular Scaffolding Spinning bioreactor # of VZ-like regions in organoid Days of differentiation Reference
Rostral and caudal cortices, hem and choroid plexus Human ESCs Initial stage: Dkk-1, Lefty-1 - - Inconsistent multiple 46 days [32]
Rostral cortices: Fgf8
Caudal cortices: Fgf inhibitor FGFR3-Fc
Cortical hem and choroid: Wnt3a and BMP4
Neocortex Human ESCs IWR1e, SB431542 - - Inconsistent multiple 112 days [33]
Dorsal cortex, ventral forebrain, retina, hippocampus, choroid plexus, midbrain-hindbrain boundary Human ESCs/iPSCs - Matrigel Yes Inconsistent multiple 75 days [34]
Forebrain, midbrain, hypothalamus Human iPSCs Forebrain organoids: dorsomorphine, A83–01, WNT3A, CHIR99021, SB-431542 Matrigel Yes Inconsistent multiple 120 days [36]
Midbrain organoids: LDN-193189, SB-431542, SHH, purmorphamine, FGF-8, CHIR99021
Hypothalamus organoids: LDN-193189, SB-431542, 1-Thioglycerol, WNT3A, SHH, purmorphamine
Cerebral cortex Human iPSCs Dorsomorphin, SB431542, bFGF, EGF - - Inconsistent multiple 181 days [37]
Neocortex Human ESCs/iPSCs SB431542, LDN193189, PD0325901, bFGF, FGF18 - - 1 66 days [40]