- Open Access
Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible and spontaneous Cre activities driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter that can be used for the conditional analysis of basal epithelial cells in multiple organs
© Liang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 28 October 2008
- Accepted: 08 January 2009
- Published: 08 January 2009
Cre/lox P-mediated genetic modification is the most widely used conditional genetic approach used in the mouse. Engineered Cre and the mutated ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor fusion recombinase (CreERT) allow temporal control of Cre activity.
In this study, we have generated two distinct transgenic mouse lines expressing CreERT, which show 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT)-inducible and spontaneous (4-OHT-independent) Cre activities, referred to Tg(BK5-CreER T )I and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S, respectively. The transgenic construct is driven by the bovine Keratin 5 promoter, which is active in the basal epithelial lineage of stratified and pseudo-stratified epithelium across multiple organs. Despite the difference in 4-OHT dependency, the Tg(BK5-CreER T )I and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mouse lines shared similar Cre-mediated recombination among various organs, except for unique mammary epithelial Cre activity in Tg(BK5-CreER T )S females.
These two new transgenic mouse lines for the analysis of basal epithelial function and for the genetic modification have been created allowing the identification of these cell lineages and analysis of their differentiation during embryogenesis, during perinatal development and in adult mice.
- Luminal Epithelium
- Transgenic Mouse Line
- Stratify Epithelium
- Basal Epithelial Cell
- Transgenic Founder
Gene targeting provides a powerful tool to address gene function by the manipulation of the mouse genome through homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells (reviewed in ). However, germ-line genetic modification often causes lethality or numerous effects that interfere with the analysis of specific biological phenotypes. Conditional gene targeting using the Cre/loxP-mediated recombination system (reviewed in [1, 2]) offers an alternative approach for the dissection of gene function. Cre recombinase expression can be regulated by tissue or cell-type specific promoters in transgenic mouse lines. Thus, Cre can recognize loxP sites to catalyze site-specific recombination in a tissue/cell specific manner. In addition to tissue/cell specific regulation of Cre expression, temporal control of Cre recombinase activity in transgenic mice has been demonstrated utilizing Cre recombinase fused with the mutated hormone-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ERT); this can be activated by the synthetic estrogen analog tamoxifen or 4-OHT, but not by the physiological ligand 17β-estradiol [3, 4]. Thus, such an inducible Cre recombinase transgenic mouse model is able to further facilitate conditional gene knockout analysis and allow the study of gene function at specific time points in a highly controlled manner.
Keratin 5 (K5) is a member of type II keratins and expresses with its type I keratin partner keratin 14 (K14) in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelium (SSC) [5–7]. Utilizing K5 promoter-driven reporter gene expression in transgenic mice has been shown to recapitulate the expression profiles of endogenous K5 in basal epithelia [8, 9]; these cells are thought to have enriched stem/progenitor populations that give rise to the suprabasal differentiated cells of stratified epithelia [8–12]. Generation of transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the K5 promoter as well as by the K14 promoter have provided very useful genetic tools for the analysis of the basal proliferating cells of SSC [13, 14]. In addition, these reports have demonstrated that K5-Cre and K14-Cre mice exhibit Cre/lox P recombination activity through female germ-line only, which potentially confines the breeding strategy available for the analysis of tissue-specific gene ablation, that is in generalized germ-line deleted strains [13, 14]. As an alternative, the K5 or K14 promoter directed Cre fused with either a mutated version of ER or PR (progesterone receptor) has allowed expression in a variety of transgenic mouse lines, which offers ligand-induced Cre/lox P-mediated recombination in utero or at adult stage; these have proved to be powerful genetic resources and have mostly concentrated on the analysis of epidermal development and disease [15–19]. To strengthen the genetic resources of the K5-derived epithelial lineages, we have generated transgenic mouse lines expressing the Cre recombinase fused with ERT driven by the bovine K5 promoter on an inbred (C57BL/6J) background in this report.
The Tg(BK5-CreER T )I and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mice bearing the same transgene, BK5-CreER T (Figure 1) were generated by pronuclear microinjection and further maintained on a C57BL/6J background. R OSA26 Cre r eporter mice (Gt(ROSA)26Sortm1Sor; the Jackson Laboratory) on a C57BL/6;129 mix background are referred to as R26R mice in this report. The Tg(BK5-CreER T )I/+;R26R/+ and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S/+;R26R/+ bigenic mice were generated by crossing R26R/R26R females with Tg(BK5-CreER T )I/+ and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S/+ males, respectively. Occasionally, the offspring of R26R/R26R males and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S/+ females were generated and are referred to as R26R;Tg(BK5-CreER T )S, as they are the progeny of Tg(BK5-CreER T )S/+ females; these were used for the analysis of spontaneous Cre activity through the female germ-line. The genotyping protocol for the R26R allele was according to the methodology for PCR genotyping presented on the web site of the Jackson Laboratory. Genotyping of the Tg(BK5-CreER T )I and Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mice was determined by a 300-bp PCR product amplified by a forward primer (5'-GGACATGTTCAGGGATCGCCAGGCG-3') and a reverse primer (5'-CGACGATGAAGCATGTTTAGCTG-3'). The PCR conditions were 5 min at 94°C, 28 cycles for 1 min at 94°C, 1 min at 64°C, 1 min at 72°C and a final 2 min extension at 72°C. All animals were housed in microisolator cages (up to 5 mice per cage) using specific pathogen free husbandry. All experiments with mice were performed with the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at National Yang-Ming University.
4-hydroxytamoxifen (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma) at a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The 4-OHT solution was emulsified in sunflower seed oil (Sigma) by vortex followed by mixing on a rotator for 4~6 hours. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with three doses of 4-OHT (4~5 mg/kg body weight) every other day.
Whole mount X-gal staining
The detailed experimental procedures had been described previously . After X-gal staining, the tissues were embedded in paraffin and then were further processed to give ~7 μm thick sections. These tissue sections were placed on slides, deparaffinied and then rehydrated, which was followed by counterstaining with Nuclear Fast Red (Muto Pure Chemicals CO., Tokyo, Japan) for 10 minutes. β-galactosidase positive tissues were examined by light microscopy (BX51, Olympus, Japan).
Through pronuclear microinjection, four BK5-CreER T transgenic founders were obtained. Each transgenic founder was backcrossed to C57BL/6J for expansion of the individual transgenic line. All transgenic founders were fertile and transmitted BK5-CreER T transgenes to their progeny. To examine the Cre recombinase activity, BK5-CreER T mice were bred with ROSA26 Cre Reporter (R26R) mice  to generate Tg(BK5-CreER T );R26R bigenic mice; this was followed by intraperitoneal 4-OHT injection. Among these four transgenic mouse lines, three lines exhibited 4-OHT induced Cre recombinase activity. We selected an efficient and tightly controlled 4-OHT i nducible BK5-CreER T transgenic mouse line, referred to here as Tg(BK5-CreER T )I, to be the representative line for further study.
Previously Hafner et al and Ramirez et al. independently demonstrated that K5-Cre and K14-Cre express in female oocytes and have suggested their applicability as female germ-line deleter strains [13, 14]. To determine whether our Tg(BK5-CreER T )S transgenic mice exhibited female germ-line Cre activity, we obtained offspring (R26R;Tg(BK5-CreER T )S) from a cross of a R26R/R26R male and a Tg(BK5-CreER T )S/+ female and analyzed spontaneous β-galactiosidase expression compared to of control R26R mice. Our results showed that the X-gal positively stained patterns remained specific to the K5-expressing cell types as shown by examples of skin and trachea (Figure 3f &3g). In the R26R;Tg(BK5-CreER T )S skin, the β-galactosidase activity showed tissue/lineage-specific expression in the epidermal, hair follicles and sebaceous cells (Figure 3f), suggesting that the stem cell populations were targeted. In the R26R;Tg(BK5-CreER T )S trachea, intense X-gal-stained cells were found in the basal cells of the pseudo-stratified epithelium (Figure 3g). Our data suggested that the Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mouse line does not behave as a female germ-line deleter as described in earlier reports [13, 14]. The spontaneous Cre activity of Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mice enabled us to bypass the female germ-line deletion effect and to use this line for Cre-mediate recombination in a tissue-specific manner during embryonic and early postnatal development.
Taken together, we reported two new transgenic mouse lines, Tg(BK5-CreER T )S and Tg(BK5-CreER T )I, which exhibit spontaneous and 4-OHT-inducible Cre activity driven by a bovine K5 promoter, respectively. For analysis of Cre/lox P-mediated recombination at the embryonic and early postnatal stages using Tg(BK5-CreER T )S mouse line, a breeding scheme that considers whether the male or the female is carrying the BK5-CreER T transgene is not necessary because there was no female germ-line Cre-mediated recombination in our Tg(BK5-CreER T )S females. The 4OHT-induced Tg(BK5-CreER T )I mouse line will enable us to perform conditional genetics in temporally and spatially controlled manner.
These genetic resources generated in this study will not only help us to understand the biology of the skin, but will also support studies of the basal epithelial lineages of pseudo-stratified, stratified and transitional epithelia as they appear in the thymic medulla, the esophagus, the forestomach, the trachea, the bronchus, the bladder, the cervicovagina, etc. Moreover, glandular organs such as prostate glands, which are composed of K5-expressing basal epithelium, can also be a target organ using these new transgenic mouse lines; this will allow the genetic fine-dissection of basal epithelial function in terms of epithelial identity and differentiation.
We thank Dr Ralph Kirby for proofreading of this manuscript. We also thank Drs José L. Jorcano and Pierre Chambon for the BK5-Cre and pCre-ER(T) plasmids, respectively. We thank Dr Richard R. Behringer for initial comments and suggestions on our work. This work was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Aim for the Top University Plan, by grants from National Research Program of Genomic Medicine (96IR017 and Taiwan Mouse Clinic) and by grants from the National Science Council of Taiwan to C.-M. C (NSC 93-2320-B-010-075; NSC 96-2320-B-010-001; NSC 96-2320-B-010-009; NSC 97-3112-B-010-008) and to L.-R. Y. (NSC 95-2311-B-010-014-MY3; NSC 95-2320-B-010-050-MY3).
- Cheah SS, Behringer RR: Gene-targeting strategies. Methods Mol Biol. 2000, 136: 455-463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kwan KM: Conditional alleles in mice: practical considerations for tissue-specific knockouts. Genesis. 2002, 32: 49-62. 10.1002/gene.10068.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feil R, Brocard J, Mascrez B, LeMeur M, Metzger D, Chambon P: Ligand-activated site-specific recombination in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93: 10887-10890. 10.1073/pnas.93.20.10887.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vooijs M, Jonkers J, Berns A: A highly efficient ligand-regulated Cre recombinase mouse line shows that LoxP recombination is position dependent. EMBO Rep. 2001, 2: 292-297. 10.1093/embo-reports/kve064.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lersch R, Fuchs E: Sequence and expression of a type II keratin, K5, in human epidermal cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1988, 8: 486-493.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson WG, Sun TT: The 50- and 58-kdalton keratin classes as molecular markers for stratified squamous epithelia: cell culture studies. J Cell Biol. 1983, 97: 244-251. 10.1083/jcb.97.1.244.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casatorres J, Navarro JM, Blessing M, Jorcano JL: Analysis of the control of expression and tissue specificity of the keratin 5 gene, characteristic of basal keratinocytes. Fundamental role of an AP-1 element. J Biol Chem. 1994, 269: 20489-20496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Byrne C, Tainsky M, Fuchs E: Programming gene expression in developing epidermis. Development. 1994, 120: 2369-2383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramirez A, Bravo A, Jorcano JL, Vidal M: Sequences 5' of the bovine keratin 5 gene direct tissue- and cell-type-specific expression of a lacZ gene in the adult and during development. Differentiation. 1994, 58: 53-64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koster MI, Roop DR: Mechanisms regulating epithelial stratification. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2007, 23: 93-113. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.23.090506.123357.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blanpain C, Fuchs E: Epidermal stem cells of the skin. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006, 22: 339-373. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010305.104357.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fuchs E: Scratching the surface of skin development. Nature. 2007, 445: 834-842. 10.1038/nature05659.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hafner M, Wenk J, Nenci A, Pasparakis M, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Smyth N, Peters T, Kess D, Holtkotter O, Shephard P, Kudlow JE, Smola H, Haase I, Schippers A, Krieg T, Muller W: Keratin 14 Cre transgenic mice authenticate keratin 14 as an oocyte-expressed protein. Genesis. 2004, 38: 176-181. 10.1002/gene.20016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramirez A, Page A, Gandarillas A, Zanet J, Pibre S, Vidal M, Tusell L, Genesca A, Whitaker DA, Melton DW, Jorcano JL: A keratin K5Cre transgenic line appropriate for tissue-specific or generalized Cre-mediated recombination. Genesis. 2004, 39: 52-57. 10.1002/gene.20025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vasioukhin V, Degenstein L, Wise B, Fuchs E: The magical touch: genome targeting in epidermal stem cells induced by tamoxifen application to mouse skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96: 8551-8556. 10.1073/pnas.96.15.8551.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berton TR, Wang XJ, Zhou Z, Kellendonk C, Schutz G, Tsai S, Roop DR: Characterization of an inducible, epidermal-specific knockout system: differential expression of lacZ in different Cre reporter mouse strains. Genesis. 2000, 26: 160-161. 10.1002/(SICI)1526-968X(200002)26:2<160::AID-GENE20>3.0.CO;2-#.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Z, Wang D, Wang XJ, Roop DR: In utero activation of K5.CrePR1 induces gene deletion. Genesis. 2002, 32: 191-192. 10.1002/gene.10064.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Indra AK, Li M, Brocard J, Warot X, Bornert JM, Gerard C, Messaddeq N, Chambon P, Metzger D: Targeted somatic mutagenesis in mouse epidermis. Horm Res. 2000, 54: 296-300. 10.1159/000053275.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Indra AK, Warot X, Brocard J, Bornert JM, Xiao JH, Chambon P, Metzger D: Temporally-controlled site-specific mutagenesis in the basal layer of the epidermis: comparison of the recombinase activity of the tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ER(T) and Cre-ER(T2) recombinases. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999, 27: 4324-4327. 10.1093/nar/27.22.4324.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Recillas-Targa F, Pikaart MJ, Burgess-Beusse B, Bell AC, Litt MD, West AG, Gaszner M, Felsenfeld G: Position-effect protection and enhancer blocking by the chicken beta-globin insulator are separable activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99: 6883-6888. 10.1073/pnas.102179399.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- West AG, Huang S, Gaszner M, Litt MD, Felsenfeld G: Recruitment of histone modifications by USF proteins at a vertebrate barrier element. Mol Cell. 2004, 16: 453-463. 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.10.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagy A, Gertsenstein M, Vintersten K, Behringer RR: Manipulating the mouse embryo: a laboratory manual. 2003, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 289-331. 3Google Scholar
- Lu T-L, Chang J-L, Liang C-C, You L-R, Chen C-M: Tumor Spectrum, Tumor Latency and Tumor Incidence of the Pten-Deficient Mice. PLoS ONE. 2007, 2: e1237-10.1371/journal.pone.0001237.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soriano P: Generalized lacZ expression with the ROSA26 Cre reporter strain. Nat Genet. 1999, 21: 70-71. 10.1038/5007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bennett AR, Farley A, Blair NF, Gordon J, Sharp L, Blackburn CC: Identification and characterization of thymic epithelial progenitor cells. Immunity. 2002, 16: 803-814. 10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00321-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klug DB, Carter C, Crouch E, Roop D, Conti CJ, Richie ER: Interdependence of cortical thymic epithelial cell differentiation and T-lineage commitment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998, 95: 11822-11827. 10.1073/pnas.95.20.11822.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurita T, Cooke PS, Cunha GR: Epithelial-stromal tissue interaction in paramesonephric (Mullerian) epithelial differentiation. Dev Biol. 2001, 240: 194-211. 10.1006/dbio.2001.0458.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cunha GR: Stromal induction and specification of morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the epithelia of the Mullerian ducts and urogenital sinus during development of the uterus and vagina in mice. J Exp Zool. 1976, 196: 361-370. 10.1002/jez.1401960310.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.