Identification of lipocalin-2 as a PKCδ phosphorylation substrate in neutrophils
© Weng et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 17 December 2014
Accepted: 13 March 2015
Published: 20 March 2015
PKCδ expressed in neutrophils is implicated in promoting reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke. To understand the molecular and cellular actions of PKCδ, we employed a chemical-genetics approach to identify PKCδ substrates in neutrophils.
We recently generated knock-in mice endogenously expressing analog-specific PKCδ (AS-PKCδ) that can utilize ATP analogs as phosphate donors. Using neutrophils isolated from the knock-in mice, we identified several PKCδ substrates, one of which was lipocalin-2 (LCN2), which is an iron-binding protein that can trigger apoptosis by reducing intracellular iron concentrations. We found that PKCδ phosphorylated LCN2 at T115 and this phosphorylation was reduced in Prkcd −/− mice. PKCδ colocalized with LCN2 in resting and stimulated neutrophils. LCN2 release from neutrophils after cerebral ischemia was reduced in PKCδ null mice.
These findings suggest that PKCδ phosphorylates LCN2 and mediates its release from neutrophils during ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States . Early reperfusion with thrombolytic agents can be effective in treating acute ischemic stroke, but may initiate and enhance inflammatory responses causing reperfusion injury . After reperfusion, neutrophils adhere to cerebral vasculature, infiltrate ischemic brain tissues, and release free radicals and proteins that may exacerbate brain injury . Our prior work indicates that PKCδ is necessary for neutrophil activation following ischemia and reperfusion. We found that Prkcd −/− mice show a striking 70% reduction in brain injury after ischemic stroke . This outcome was associated with reduced infiltration of neutrophils into infarcted tissue, as well as impaired neutrophil adhesion, migration, respiratory burst, and degranulation. To further understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which PKCδ contributes to reperfusion injury, we aimed to identify PKCδ substrates in neutrophils.
PKC constitutes a family of 10 serine-threonine kinases sharing a highly conserved catalytic domain . Similarities in the catalytic domains of PKC isozymes make it difficult to identify the unique targets of an individual isozyme in the presence of related cellular kinases. A chemical-genetic approach has been developed to identify kinase substrates and specific kinase inhibitors by modifying the gatekeeper residue of catalytic domain to accept analogs of ATP and PP1 inhibitors that have low affinity for native kinases [6,7]. Using this approach we generated and characterized an analog-specific PKCδ (AS-PKCδ) [8-10]. AS-PKCδ shows kinase activity similar to wild type PKCδ, but can utilize N6-(benzyl)-ATP as a phosphate donor and is uniquely sensitive to inhibition by 1NA-PP1 [8-10]. To identify PKCδ substrates in neutrophils, we wanted to express AS-PKCδ in neutrophils, but because they are terminally differentiated and difficult to transfect, we instead used AS-PKCδ knock-in mice, which endogenously express AS-PKCδ . Using neutrophils isolated from these knock-in mice, we identified lipocalin-2 (LCN2) as a PKCδ substrate. LCN2, also known as oncogene 24p3, siderocalin or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), was initially purified as a 25 kDa protein secreted from neutrophils . Several pathological conditions including bacterial infection , renal ischemia , spinal cord injury , and ischemic stroke [15-17] trigger the release of LCN2. Here we found reduced release of LCN2 in Prkcd −/− mice following cerebral ischemia, indicating an important role for PKCδ in LCN2 secretion.
Neutrophils were isolated from bone marrow by Percoll density gradient centrifugation [4,18]. Neutrophils were lysed by freeze/thaw treatment in modified RIPA buffer containing 50 mM Tris–HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP-40, 5 mM EDTA, 5 mM EGTA, phosphatase inhibitor cocktails I and II (Sigma-Aldrich), and cOmpleteTM protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and were centrifuged at 20,000 g for 15 min at 4°C. The supernatant (100 μg proteins) was incubated in 60 μl of PKC reaction buffer containing 20 mM HEPES pH 7.4, 0.1 mM EGTA, 0.03% Triton X-100, and 10 mM MgCl2 at 27°C for 30 min with 1 mM GTP, 200 μM N6-(benzyl)-ATP-γS (Biolog), and 1 μM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (Sigma-Aldrich) to initiate the reaction. Control reactions without PMA, and reactions with 1 μM 1NA-PP1 (Calbiochem) to inhibit AS-PKCδ activity were included. The kinase reactions were stopped by adding 20 mM EDTA. Thiophosphorylated proteins were alkylated by incubation with 2.5 mM para-nitrobenzylmesylate (PNBM) (Epitomics) for 2 h at room temperature.
Fractionation by MicroSol-IEF
Alkylated proteins were resolved by isoelectric focusing using a Zoom-IEF Fractionator (Invitrogen), according to the manufacturer’s protocol . Alkylated samples were dissolved in IEF fractionation buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4% CHAPS (Invitrogen), 65 mM DTT, 1 mM EDTA, protease inhibitors cocktail (Roche), and 1 mM PMSF (Sigma-Aldrich), and centrifuged at 20,000 g for 60 min at 4°C. The supernatant was collected to determine the protein concentration by the Bradford protein assay using BSA as a standard and were adjusted with IEF fractionation buffer to 0.6 mg/mL. Aliquots of 650 μl were loaded in five different pH chambers (pH 3.0-4.6, pH 4.6-5.4, pH 5.4-6.2, pH 6.2-7.0, and pH 7.0-10.0) in the Zoom-IEF Fractionator, and processed sequentially at 100 V for 20 min, 200 V for 80 min and 600 V for 80 min. The fractionated samples from each chamber were analyzed by western blot analysis using rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the thiophosphate esters (1:10,000 dilution; Abcam) and HRP conjugated secondary antibodies (1:1,000 dilution; Jackson ImmunoResearch). Gel loading was assessed by western blot analysis with a mouse monoclonal anti-actin antibody (1:2,000 dilution; Sigma-Aldrich).
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for protein identification
Protein bands of interest detected on western blots were excised from parallel Coomassie Blue stained gels and placed into microcentrifuge tubes. The gel slices were dried in a vacuum concentrator, rehydrated and digested in trypsin solution (12.5 ng/μl sequencing grade trypsin in freshly diluted 25 mM ammonium bicarbonate) overnight at 32°C. The liquid containing trypsinized peptides was extracted twice with 50 μl of 50% acetonitrile/2% TFA. The combined extracts were dried and resuspended in matrix solution (10 mg/ml 4-hydroxy-α-cyanocinnamic acid in 50% acetonitrile/0.1% TFA). Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric analysis was performed on the digest using a PerSeptive Voyager DE-RP mass spectrometer in the linear mode by Applied Biomics, Hayward, CA. Detected peptides were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting using the Mascot search engine .
Purification of recombinant LCN2
A plasmid (kindly provided by M. Green, U. Mass. Med. School) containing the cDNA sequence encoding the mouse Lcn2 gene in pGEX-2T (GE Healthcare) was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells (Invitrogen) . GST-LCN2 fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography using Glutathione-Sepharose 4B beads (GE Healthcare). Purified GST-LCN2 was incubated with thrombin-agarose (Sigma-Aldrich) to remove the GST tag. The supernatant containing cleaved GST and LCN2 was incubated with Glutathione-Sepharose to absorb the GST. The supernatant containing only LCN2 was collected for in vitro kinase assays.
In vitro kinase assay
In vitro phosphorylation of purified LCN2 by recombinant PKCδ (Invitrogen) was performed as described . The kinase reaction was initiated at 37°C by adding recombinant LCN2 and [γ-32P]ATP. At different time points, the reaction mixture was stopped by the addition of SDS sample buffer. Proteins were separated on NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels (Invitrogen) and stained using SimplyBlue (Invitrogen). Phosphorylated LCN2 was detected by phosphorimaging (Typhoon 9410, Amersham Bioscience).
Mapping phosphorylation sites by tandem mass spectrometry
To identify the PKCδ phosphorylation sites, LCN2 protein was phosphorylated in vitro by PKCδ using 0.5 mM non-radiolabeled ATP for 4 h as described above. The reaction mixtures were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and stained with SimplyBlue (Invitrogen). Gel slices containing the phosphorylated LCN2 were treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptide mixtures were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) serviced at the Protein Chemistry Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center. Samples from the digests were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS using a LC-Packings HPLC (Dionex) coupled to a QStar XL mass spectrometer (Applied Biosystems). Data were searched against a home-built database that includes the LCN2 sequence. Four modifications were included in the database search: carbamidomethyl (C), oxidation (M), phospho (ST), and phospho (Y).
Generation of LCN2 phosphorylation site mutants
LCN2 T115A was generated by site-directed mutagenesis using a QuikChange mutagenesis kit (Stratagene). The mouse Lcn2 cDNA subcloned into pGEX-2TK was used as a template to replace Thr-115 with Ala using the following primers: 5′-GCTCCAGGGCTGGCCAGTTCGCCCTGGGAAATATGCACAGG-3′ (forward) and 5′-CCTGTGCATATTTCCCAGGGCGAACTGGCCAGCCCTGGAGC-3′ (reverse). The coding region was sequenced to confirm error-free PCR and the T115A mutation. The LCN2 T115A protein was generated in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells and purified as described above.
Detection of LCN2 T115 phosphorylation by phospho-specific antibody
A polyclonal rabbit anti-phospho-LCN2 (T115) antibody against a phosphopeptide 110RAGQF[pT]LGNMHR121 was generated and affinity-purified as a service at ProSci Inc. We optimized specificity for the targeted phospho-epitope using both negative and positive affinity purification methods, as described . The phospho-LCN2 (T115) antibody (1:500 dilution) was used in western blotting to detect the phosphorylation of LCN2 in neutrophil lysates or LCN2 phosphorylated in vitro by PKCδ in the presence of non-radioactive ATP.
Neutrophils were plated on glass coverslips coated with 20% fetal calf serum for 10 min at 37°C. The coverslips with attached neutrophils were treated with or without 1 μM formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) for 10 min at 37°C and fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 10 min at room temperature . After permeabilization in 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 min, neutrophils were blocked in 10% normal donkey serum (NDS), 0.2% BSA in PBS for 1 h and incubated with mouse anti-PKCδ antibody (1:200 dilution; BD) and goat anti-LCN2 antibody (1:200 dilution; R&D Systems) diluted in PBS containing 2% NDS and 0.2% BSA overnight at 4°C. After three washes with PBS, neutrophils were incubated with the appropriate Donkey fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies (1:200 dilution; Jackson ImmunoResearch) and cover-slipped in mounting media containing DAPI (Vector Labs) to localize nuclei. Images were captured using Zeiss LSM 510 laser confocal microscope.
Secretion of LCN2 in neutrophils
Neutrophils were stimulated with 1 μM of fMLP (Sigma-Aldrich) for 10, 20, 30, 60, and 120 min. Release and cell-associated LCN2 were analyzed by western blot analysis using anti-LCN2 antibody (R&D Systems).
Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion
Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) without hypotension [25,26]. Mice weighing 25–35 g were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane in 30% O2/70% N2 using the V-10 Anesthesia system (VetEquip). Rectal temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5°C throughout the procedure by the TR-200 homeothermic temperature system (Fine Science Tools). Both common carotid arteries were carefully dissected away from the vagus nerves and occluded with Micro Serrefines (Fine Science Tools). Following 10 min of occlusion, the Micro Serrefines were removed from the CCA to induce reperfusion. All procedures were conducted in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee policies.
Collection of mouse serum
At different time points after BCCAO, mice were anesthetized with 5% isoflurane and euthanized by cervical dislocation. The blood was collected from the decapitated trunk and placed at room temperature for one hour. The blood was centrifuged at 2000 g for 20 min at room temperature, and the supernatant was collected as blood serum for western blot analysis .
Quantitative data were expressed as mean ± SEM and analyzed using Prism 5.0 (GraphPad). Two-tailed, unpaired t-test or ANOVA with post hoc tests was used to determine statistical significance between means. The value of p less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Identification of PKCδ substrates in neutrophils
We found that only AS-PKCδ, but not wild type PKCδ, can use N6-(benzyl)-ATP in a kinase reaction with histone III as a substrate . Previous studies have demonstrated the use of analog-specific kinases to identify substrates with 32P-labeled ATP analogs [28-33]. However, it remains challenging to isolate 32P-labeled substrates through conventional chromatography for identification by mass spectrometry. To facilitate the identification and purification of PKCδ substrates, we adopted an affinity tagging strategy to label substrates that can be recognized by a specific antibody . First, an analog-specific kinase is used to thiophosphorylate substrates with N6-(benzyl)-ATP-γS. The thiophosphate groups are then alkylated by para-nitrobenzylmesylate (PNBM) to create thiophosphate ester epitopes that can be detected with the antibody.
Identification of LCN2 T115 as the PKCδ phosphorylation site
Phosphorylation of LCN2 at T115 is reduced in neutrophils from Prkcd −/− mice
PKCδ colocalizes with LCN2 in neutrophils
Release of LCN2 from neutrophils and after cerebral ischemia is reduced in Prkcd −/− mice
In this study, we employed a chemical-genetics approach to identify PKCδ substrates in neutrophils. One of the PKCδ substrates was LCN2, a member of the lipocalin family. PKCδ directly phosphorylates LCN2 at T115 in vitro and in neutrophils. The members of lipocalin family share little overall sequence homology, but all form a similar cup-shaped structure suited for carrying small hydrophobic molecules . The crystal structure of LCN2 with nine β-strands and one α-helix forms a funnel-like binding pocket containing an iron-loaded siderophore  (Figure 3E). The PKCδ phosphorylation site (T115) is not located within the siderophore-binding pocket, but on the β5 strand with its side chain projecting outward. Thus, phosphorylation of T115 is unlikely to alter the binding with the siderophore, but instead could regulate the interaction of LCN2 with other molecules.
The anti-phospho-LCN2 (T115) immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the neutrophil lysates of Prkcd −/− mice (Figure 4). However, the presence of residual immunoreactivity in Prkcd −/− mice suggests that T115 might also be phosphorylated by other kinases. There are three additional PKC isozymes (α, β, ζ) found expressed in neutrophils [4,42,43]. The preferred amino acid sequences flanking the phosphorylated residue for each PKC isozyme have been determined as isozyme specific phosphorylation motifs [45,46]. The four PKC isozymes (α, β, δ, ζ) in neutrophils all prefer phosphorylating peptides with a hydrophobic residue at position +1 of the phosphorylated site towards the carboxyl-terminal [45,46]. The amino acid following Thr-115 of LCN2 fits that criterion with Leu at this position (Figure 3B). PKCα and δ, but not PKCβ and ζ, prefer Arg at −5 position. Only PKCδ, but not other neutrophil PKC’s, prefers hydrophobic residues at +2, +3 and +4. The sequence flanking Thr-115 contains Arg at −5 and Met at +4, so Thr-115 may be preferentially phosphorylated by PKCδ. However, the sequence lacks a basic residue at the −3 position, and thus it is not fully conserved as a PKCδ specific phosphorylation motif. These linear phosphorylation motifs are short peptide sequences derived from in vitro kinase assays using an oriented peptide library [45,46]. Thus, predictions based on motifs are suggestive, but may not fully capture the phosphorylation events in vivo. In fact, recent studies demonstrate that PKC and PKA phosphorylate Ser/Thr residues of substrates within sequences that do not match known linear motifs . The folding of different parts of the substrate can create “structurally formed” phosphorylation motifs. LCN2 exists as a monomer and homodimer as well as heterodimer with MMP-9 [36,48]. The tertiary and quaternary structures of LCN2 may contribute to the specificity of substrate phosphorylation by PKCδ. Future studies will be needed to decipher the mechanisms in detail.
We found that LCN2 is released from fMLP-stimulated neutrophils in vitro and into the serum after cerebral ischemia (Figure 6). Previous studies demonstrate that LCN2 is up-regulated in mouse models of spinal cord injury  and neurodegeneration . Neutrophil infiltration, expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and neuronal cell death after spinal cord injury  are reduced in LCN2 null mice. We recently found that brain injury, neurological deficits, and infiltration of immune cells were markedly diminished in LCN2 null mice when compared with wild type mice after stroke-reperfusion injury . Recombinant LCN2 stimulates neutrophil migration in vitro and in vivo  and induces apoptosis by sequestering intracellular iron [21,34]. Moreover, stroke patients with higher LCN2 levels in blood plasma show higher cardiovascular mortality . These findings suggest that LCN2 is a chemoattractant for neutrophils and a pro-inflammatory signal induced by nervous system injury. Our previous study shows that neutrophil infiltration and brain injury are reduced in Prkcd −/− mice after ischemic stroke . Given our current results showing that LCN2 release is reduced in Prkcd −/− mice, the mild stroke phenotype in Prkcd −/− mice may result in part from reduced release of LCN2. Taken together, our results suggest that reduction of PKCδ activation and LCN2 release might prove useful in reducing post-ischemic inflammation and brain injury after stroke.
Neutrophil PKCδ contributes to stroke-reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. In this report, we identified lipocalin-2 as a PKCδ substrate in neutrophils using a chemical-genetics approach. PKCδ phosphorylates lipocalin-2 at T115 and mediates the secretion of lipocalin-2 in neutrophils. This study provides a potential mechanism for the role of PKCδ in stroke-reperfusion injury.
This work was supported by NIH Grant NS057195, UCSF REAC grant, Kent State University start-up fund, AHA 13BGIA13820011, and Farris Family Innovation Award to W.C. Chou, and by NIH grant R01 AA018316 to R.O. Messing. We thank Professor M. Green at University of Massachusetts Medical School for the GST-LCN2 cDNA constructs, T.C. Chiang, and M. Rosen for technical support.
- Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127:e6–245.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iadecola C, Anrather J. The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation. Nat Med. 2011;17:796–808.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eltzschig HK, Eckle T. Ischemia and reperfusion–from mechanism to translation. Nat Med. 2011;17:1391–401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chou WH, Choi DS, Zhang H, Mu D, McMahon T, Kharazia VN, et al. Neutrophil protein kinase Cdelta as a mediator of stroke-reperfusion injury. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:49–56.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg SF. Structural basis of protein kinase C isoform function. Physiol Rev. 2008;88:1341–78.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bishop AC, Buzko O, Shokat KM. Magic bullets for protein kinases. Trends Cell Biol. 2001;11:167–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang C, Lopez MS, Dar AC, Ladow E, Finkbeiner S, Yun CH, et al. Structure-guided inhibitor design expands the scope of analog-sensitive kinase technology. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:1931–8.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Allen JJ, Li M, Brinkworth CS, Paulson JL, Wang D, Hubner A, et al. A semisynthetic epitope for kinase substrates. Nat Methods. 2007;4:511–6.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi DS, Wei W, Deitchman JK, Kharazia VN, Lesscher HM, McMahon T, et al. Protein kinase Cdelta regulates ethanol intoxication and enhancement of GABA-stimulated tonic current. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11890–9.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar V, Weng YC, Geldenhuys WJ, Wang D, Han X, Messing RO, et al. Generation and Characterization of ATP Analog-specific Protein Kinase Cdelta. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1936–51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kjeldsen L, Johnsen AH, Sengelov H, Borregaard N. Isolation and primary structure of NGAL, a novel protein associated with human neutrophil gelatinase. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:10425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flo TH, Smith KD, Sato S, Rodriguez DJ, Holmes MA, Strong RK, et al. Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. Nature. 2004;432:917–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mishra J, Dent C, Tarabishi R, Mitsnefes MM, Ma Q, Kelly C, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a biomarker for acute renal injury after cardiac surgery. Lancet. 2005;365:1231–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rathore KI, Berard JL, Redensek A, Chierzi S, Lopez-Vales R, Santos M, et al. Lipocalin 2 plays an immunomodulatory role and has detrimental effects after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13412–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elneihoum AM, Falke P, Axelsson L, Lundberg E, Lindgarde F, Ohlsson K. Leukocyte activation detected by increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke. 1996;27:1734–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anwaar I, Gottsater A, Ohlsson K, Mattiasson I, Lindgarde F. Increasing levels of leukocyte-derived inflammatory mediators in plasma and cAMP in platelets during follow-up after acute cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998;8:310–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Falke P, Elneihoum AM, Ohlsson K. Leukocyte activation: relation to cardiovascular mortality after cerebrovascular ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000;10:97–101.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lowell CA, Berton G. Resistance to endotoxic shock and reduced neutrophil migration in mice deficient for the Src-family kinases Hck and Fgr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7580–4.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zuo X, Lee K, Ali-Khan N, Speicher DW. Protein profiling by microscale solution isoelectrofocusing (MicroSol-IEF). Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2005;Chapter 22:Unit 22.26.Google Scholar
- Perkins DN, Pappin DJ, Creasy DM, Cottrell JS. Probability-based protein identification by searching sequence databases using mass spectrometry data. Electrophoresis. 1999;20:3551–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devireddy LR, Gazin C, Zhu X, Green MR. A cell-surface receptor for lipocalin 24p3 selectively mediates apoptosis and iron uptake. Cell. 2005;123:1293–305.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chou WH, Wang D, McMahon T, Qi ZH, Song M, Zhang C, et al. GABAA receptor trafficking is regulated by protein kinase C(epsilon) and the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13955–65.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qi ZH, Song M, Wallace MJ, Wang D, Newton PM, McMahon T, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon regulates gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor sensitivity to ethanol and benzodiazepines through phosphorylation of gamma2 subunits. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33052–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pongracz J, Webb P, Wang K, Deacon E, Lunn OJ, Lord JM. Spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis involves caspase 3-mediated activation of protein kinase C-delta. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:37329–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhen G, Dore S. Optimized protocol to reduce variable outcomes for the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion model in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2007;166:73–80.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bacigaluppi M, Comi G, Hermann DM. Animal models of ischemic stroke. Part two: modeling cerebral ischemia. Open Neurol J. 2010;4:34–8.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thavasu PW, Longhurst S, Joel SP, Slevin ML, Balkwill FR. Measuring cytokine levels in blood. Importance of anticoagulants, processing, and storage conditions. J Immunol Methods. 1992;153:115–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Habelhah H, Shah K, Huang L, Burlingame AL, Shokat KM, Ronai Z. Identification of new JNK substrate using ATP pocket mutant JNK and a corresponding ATP analogue. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18090–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shah K, Shokat KM. A chemical genetic screen for direct v-Src substrates reveals ordered assembly of a retrograde signaling pathway. Chem Biol. 2002;9:35–47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eblen ST, Kumar NV, Shah K, Henderson MJ, Watts CK, Shokat KM, et al. Identification of novel ERK2 substrates through use of an engineered kinase and ATP analogs. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14926–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ubersax JA, Woodbury EL, Quang PN, Paraz M, Blethrow JD, Shah K, et al. Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Nature. 2003;425:859–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hindley AD, Park S, Wang L, Shah K, Wang Y, Hu X, et al. Engineering the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf-1 to utilise an orthogonal analogue of ATP substituted at the N6 position. FEBS Lett. 2004;556:26–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Larochelle S, Batliner J, Gamble MJ, Barboza NM, Kraybill BC, Blethrow JD, et al. Dichotomous but stringent substrate selection by the dual-function Cdk7 complex revealed by chemical genetics. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:55–62.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devireddy LR, Hart DO, Goetz DH, Green MR. A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. Cell. 2010;141:1006–17.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holmes MA, Paulsene W, Jide X, Ratledge C, Strong RK. Siderocalin (Lcn 2) also binds carboxymycobactins, potentially defending against mycobacterial infections through iron sequestration. Structure. 2005;13:29–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kjeldsen L, Cowland JB, Borregaard N. Human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and homologous proteins in rat and mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:272–83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen P. The origins of protein phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E127–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parent CA. Making all the right moves: chemotaxis in neutrophils and Dictyostelium. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:4–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang F. The signaling mechanisms underlying cell polarity and chemotaxis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009;1:a002980.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lopez-Lluch G, Bird MM, Canas B, Godovac-Zimmerman J, Ridley A, Segal AW, et al. Protein kinase C-delta C2-like domain is a binding site for actin and enables actin redistribution in neutrophils. Biochem J. 2001;357:39–47.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kjeldsen L, Bainton DF, Sengelov H, Borregaard N. Identification of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a novel matrix protein of specific granules in human neutrophils. Blood. 1994;83:799–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kent JD, Sergeant S, Burns DJ, McPhail LC. Identification and regulation of protein kinase C-delta in human neutrophils. J Immunol. 1996;157:4641–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sergeant S, McPhail LC. Opsonized zymosan stimulates the redistribution of protein kinase C isoforms in human neutrophils. J Immunol. 1997;159:2877–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin R, Yang G, Li G. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:779–89.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pearson RB, Kemp BE. Protein kinase phosphorylation site sequences and consensus specificity motifs: tabulations. Methods Enzymol. 1991;200:62–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nishikawa K, Toker A, Johannes FJ, Zhou SY, Cantley LC. Determination of the specific substrate sequence motifs of protein kinase C isozymes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:952–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duarte ML, Pena DA, Nunes Ferraz FA, Berti DA, Paschoal Sobreira TJ, Costa-Junior HM, et al. Protein folding creates structure-based, noncontiguous consensus phosphorylation motifs recognized by kinases. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yan L, Borregaard N, Kjeldsen L, Moses MA. The high molecular weight urinary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is a complex of gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Modulation of MMP-9 activity by NGAL. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37258–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bi F, Huang C, Tong J, Qiu G, Huang B, Wu Q, et al. Reactive astrocytes secrete lcn2 to promote neuron death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4069–74.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Weng YC, Han X, Whaley JD, McCrae KR, Chou WH. Lipocalin-2 released in response to cerebral ischemia mediates reperfusion injury in mice. J Cell Mol Med. 2015 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12538. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- Schroll A, Eller K, Feistritzer C, Nairz M, Sonnweber T, Moser PA, et al. Lipocalin-2 ameliorates granulocyte functionality. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:3346–57.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.