- Open Access
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis produced a small number of mice with altered plasma electrolyte levels
© Aigner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 20 March 2009
Accepted: 08 June 2009
Published: 08 June 2009
Clinical chemical blood analysis including plasma electrolytes is routinely carried out for the diagnosis of various organ diseases. Phenotype-driven N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mouse mutagenesis projects used plasma electrolytes as parameters for the generation of novel animal models for human diseases.
Here, we retrospectively evaluated the use of the plasma electrolytes calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and sodium in the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project where clinical chemical blood analysis was carried out on more than 20,000 G1 and G3 offspring of chemically mutagenized inbred C3H mice to detect dominant and recessive mutations leading to deviations in various plasma parameter levels.
We identified a small number of animals consistently exhibiting altered plasma electrolyte values. Transmission of the phenotypic deviations to the subsequent generations led to the successful establishment of mutant lines for the parameters calcium and potassium. Published data from other phenotype-driven ENU projects also included only a small number of mutant lines which were generated according to altered plasma electrolyte levels.
Thus, use of plasma electrolytes detected few mouse mutants in ENU projects compared to other clinical chemical blood parameters.
Plasma electrolytes examined in the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project
Intracellular vs. extracellular level
Parathyroidea, bone, kidney
Low; major anion in plasma
Osmotic regulation, acid-base status, kidney
Major cation, low in plasma
K+ transport system, acid-base status, kidney
Low; major cation in plasma
Osmotic regulation, kidney
Higher in cells
P uptake, bone, kidney
Biomedical research is done with mice as the animal models of choice and includes the search for alleles predisposing for or protecting against specific diseases. A strategy for the genome-wide generation and search of novel disease-related alleles consists of the random chemical mutagenesis of a large number of animals followed by systematic screening for clinically relevant disease phenotypes. The most widely used mutagen is N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) which is mutagenic for premeiotic spermatogonial stem cells. This allows the production of a large number of randomly mutant offspring from treated males. ENU predominantly induces point mutations which results in allelic series for the functional analysis of genes . During the last years, ENU mouse mutagenesis projects were established for the systematic, genome-wide, large-scale production and analysis of mouse mutants as model systems for inherited human diseases. They used appropriate routine procedures allowing the screening of large numbers of mice for a broad spectrum of parameters [4, 5]. Mutant lines were established for various phenotypic parameters. ENU-induced mice with the causative mutation already identified are successfully used in different areas of biomedical research ([6, 7] and refs. therein).
In the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project, a standardized screening profile of clinical chemical blood parameters was established for the analysis of offspring of mutagenized inbred C3H mice in order to detect phenotypic variants with defects of diverse organ systems and/or changes in metabolic pathways [8, 9]. Here we retrospectively evaluated the generation of mutant lines exhibiting deviations from the physiological range of the plasma electrolyte values of Ca, Cl, K, Na and P.
Mutagenesis and breeding of mice
The experiments were carried out on the inbred C3HeB/FeJ (C3H) genetic background as described [4, 10]. Ten-week-old male mice (= generation G0) were injected intraperitoneally with ENU (three doses of 90 mg/kg in weekly intervals).
The screen for dominant mutations was performed on G1 animals which were derived from the mating of the mutagenized G0 males to wild-type C3H females. Inheritance of the observed abnormal phenotype was tested on G2 mice which were derived from the mating of the affected G1 mouse exhibiting the altered phenotype and wild-type mice.
The screen for recessive mutations was carried out on G3 mice produced in a two-step breeding scheme from G1 mice. G1 males, which were excluded to exhibit dominant mutations by phenotypic analysis, were mated to wild-type females for the production of G2 animals. Subsequently, 6–8 G2 females were backcrossed to the G1 male to produce the G3 mice of the pedigree. The analysis of the inheritance of an observed abnormal phenotype in G3 mice was done on G5 mice. Therefore, the affected G3 mouse presumably harboring a homozygous recessive mutation was mated to a wild-type mouse for the production of the presumably heterozygous mutant G4 mice with an inconspicuous phenotype. Subsequently, the G5 mice derived from the intercross of G4 mice were tested for the abnormal phenotype. Alternatively, G5 mice derived from the backcross of a G4 mouse to the affected G3 animal were examined.
After the identification of the causative mutation, the provisional names of the established lines will be replaced according to the official nomenclature. Mouse husbandry was done under a continuously controlled specific pathogen-free (SPF) hygiene standard according to the FELASA recommendations http://www.felasa.eu. All animal experiments were carried out under the approval of the responsible animal welfare authority (Regierung von Oberbayern).
Clinical chemical analysis
Plasma from three-month-old G1 and G3 mice was analyzed for the electrolytes Ca, Cl, K, Na and P. In the cases where altered values below or above the physiologic range appeared, the mice were retested after three weeks. Blood samples were obtained by puncture of the retroorbital sinus under general short-term anesthesia. Plasma from Li-heparin treated blood was first analyzed for the electrolyte values using the Roche Hitachi 717 autoanalyzer (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) and the reagents for human samples (Roche), and in the second part of the project with the Olympus AU400 autoanalyzer (Olympus, Hamburg, Germany) and the reagents for human samples (Olympus) (Table 1). Calibration and quality control were performed according to the manufacturer's protocols.
In addition, the clinical chemical screen of plasma samples included substrates (cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, urea, uric acid) and enzyme activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, α-amylase, creatine kinase) .
The statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the software program Microsoft Excel 2000 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Values are presented as medians, and 95% and 90% ranges unless stated otherwise. Statistical significance (defined as p < 0.05) was evaluated using the χ2-test.
Results and discussion
Physiologic plasma electrolyte values in C3H mice
Retrospective analysis of the physiologic range of plasma electrolytes (mmol/l) in three-month-old C3H mice of the Munich ENU project
Roche measurement equipmenta
Olympus measurement equipmenta
Subsequently, deviations in plasma electrolyte values were defined in our analysis for mice showing values below or above the limits of the 95% range in two measurements of a three-week interval.
ENU-induced phenotypic variants showing altered plasma electrolyte values
In the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project, more than 20,000 three-month-old G1 and G3 offspring of ENU-treated mice were screened for dominant and recessive mutations for various blood parameters. Plasma values of Ca, Cl, K, Na and P were detected in 15,700 to 16,600 G1 and G3 offspring. Table 2 shows the exact numbers of mice analyzed for each electrolyte. The examined offspring included 11,700 G1 mice and 6,300 G3 mice. For the five plasma electrolytes, 56 animals were identified as phenotypic variants showing decreased or increased values in two blood samples taken in a three-week interval (Ca low: 3 animals from the dominant screen/1 animal from the recessive screen, Ca high: 2/7, Cl low: 3/3, Cl high: 1/1, K low: -/-, K high: 7/12, Na low: 6/4, Na high: 2/1, P low: 3/6, P high: -/-). Six G1/G3 phenotypic variants showed deviations in two plasma electrolyte levels (three G1 and one G3 phenotypic variants for Cl and Na, two G3 phenotypic variants for Ca and Na). The 24 G1 phenotypic variants from the dominant screen of 11,700 G1 mice were offspring of 23 ENU-mutagenized G0 males. One G0 male produced two G1 phenotypic variants, one for Cl and Na, and the other for K. The 32 G3 phenotypic variants from the recessive screen of 6,300 G3 mice were offspring of 21 G1 males which were derived from 21 different ENU-mutagenized G0 males. Seven G1 males produced in total 18 G3 phenotypic variants (four G3 siblings with increased Ca, three G3 siblings with decreased P, three G3 siblings with altered Ca or P, three pedigrees each with two G3 siblings with increased K, and two G3 siblings with descreased Cl). Appearance of altered plasma electrolyte levels in several offspring of an ENU-mutagenized mouse may indicate a heritable mutation as cause for the affected phenotype allowing the establishment of a mutant line. In these cases, the phenotypic variants are presumed to harbor the identical causative mutation within the affected pedigree. However, only one of these affected pedigrees was analyzed for the transmission of the abnormal phenotype to the offspring resulting in mutant line KAL007 (see below).
For all five electrolytes, more than 80,000 measurements were taken. Having chosen the 95% range as physiologic data range, 100 animals of a wild-type population are calculated to show values below/above the cut-off level in two subsequent measurements by chance. This is twice the number of phenotypic variants identified with the plasma electrolytes as examination parameters in our ENU project. Plasma substrates and plasma enzyme activities as examination parameters detected higher numbers of phenotypic variants in the same resource of mice. 44 phenotypic variants were observed with increased plasma urea levels, more than 150 phenotypic variants showing hyper- or hypocholesterolemia, and more than 300 phenotypic variants were observed for the five plasma enzyme activities alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, α-amylase and creatine kinase ( and refs. therein).
Establishment of mutant lines showing altered plasma electrolyte values
Phenotypic variants were tested for the inheritance of the deviations in plasma electrolyte values during the ENU project. This was analyzed on G2 offspring from the mating of G1 phenotypic variants to wild-type mice in the screen for dominant mutations, and on G4 × G3 backcross offspring after breeding G3 phenotypic variants to wild-type mice in the screen for recessive mutations. Sperm was cryo-preserved from male phenotypic variants which were not mated because of limitations of the breeding capacity wherever it was possible. A heritable altered plasma electrolyte level was diagnosed when offspring of the phenotypic variants showed values below/above the cut-off level in two measurements of a three-week interval.
Mutant lines showing deviations of plasma electrolyte values derived from the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project
Altered plasma electrolyte valuesb: total (m/f)
Mode of inheritance
Offspring testeda: n (m/f)
The frequency of the altered plasma electrolyte values in the five mutant lines was expected to be 50% after mating heterozygous mutants to wild-type animals in the lines with a dominant mutation and by breeding homozygous mutants to heterozygous mutant mice in the lines with a recessive mutation. The mutant phenotype was detected in more than half of the expected cases in all five lines. This indicated the monogenetic cause of the abnormal phenotype. In addition, this facilitates the effective subsequent phenotypic and molecular genetic analyses. In the lines with higher numbers of tested offspring, the numbers of animals exhibiting plasma K above the cut-off level were significantly (χ2-test, p < 0.001) higher than the expected 2.5% of the C3H mouse population when considering the 95% range as physiologic data range (Table 3).
Our previously published screen for altered plasma parameter levels resulted in the establishment of ENU-induced mutant lines showing changes of substrate (cholesterol, glucose, urea) and enzyme activity levels ( and refs. therein). In these ENU-induced mutant lines, there was a tendency of increased frequency of the altered phenotype with increasing age of the mice. Thus, the frequency of the mutant phenotypes may be underestimated in the present study as the mice were investigated at the age of three months. In addition, further in-depth analysis of our ENU-induced mutant lines often revealed higher frequencies of the altered phenotypes than observed in the long-term large-scale phenotyping project with the inherent impossibility of carrying out complete standardization . The plasma electrolyte screen may be improved by analyzing the animals more frequently and/or at a higher age.
Mutant lines showing plasma electrolyte deviations derived from other phenotype-driven ENU projects
Major centers performing phenotype-driven ENU mutagenesis-based projects used clinical chemical screens including plasma electrolytes as examination parameters for the generation of novel mutant mouse models . Ca, Cl, K, Na and P were used in the CMHD ENU project http://www.cmhd.ca/enu_mutagenesis/index.html, in the MRC ENU project [5, 18] as well as in the RIKEN ENU project http://www.brc.riken.jp/lab/gsc/mouse. The ENU projects used different genetic backgrounds: C57BL/6J × C3H http://www.cmhd.ca/enu_mutagenesis/index.html, BALB/c × C3H , and C57BL/6J × DBA/2J or C57BL/6J × C3H http://www.brc.riken.jp/lab/gsc/mouse.
Line 105-8-1 was described to show low plasma Ca values with low penetrance in a dominant mode of inheritance http://www.cmhd.ca/enu_mutagenesis/index.html. Line EM:02158 (GENA383) showed high plasma Cl and Na values in a dominant mode of inheritance http://www.emmanet.org/mutant_types.php. In addition, line EM:02163 (Candy5) was described to show hyperglycemia and high plasma P values http://www.emmanet.org/mutant_types.php, line MUTN/823.12.c (GENA/341) showed low plasma P and low plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, and line MUTN/941.6b showed low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low plasma Na http://www.har.mrc.ac.uk/mousebook. Linkage analysis for the determination of the chromosomal site of the causative mutation was not yet described for any line. In the RIKEN ENU project, no mutant lines were published using Ca, Cl, K, Na and P as primary examination parameters in the clinical chemical analysis. However, the subsequent plasma electrolyte analysis in phenotypic mutants which have been recognized in other screens of the ENU project (e.g. using substrates and enzyme activities of the clinical chemical screen, blood pressure, behavior, dysmorphology) revealed deviations in the mutant mice http://www.brc.riken.jp/lab/gsc/mouse.
Search for defined phenotypes in published chemically induced (ENU) mutants (as of 18.02.2009) of the "phenotypes and alleles" database in the Mouse Genome Informatics website http://www.informatics.jax.org/searches/allele_form.shtml revealed 1947 alleles and 1606 genes/markers. Among them, 202 alleles and 172 genes/markers were described with phenotypes influencing "homeostasis/metabolism" and/or "renal/urinary" pathways, but no additional lines are described which have been revealed by the primary phenotype of plasma electrolyte deviations.
Plasma electrolytes are complementary parameters for the diagnosis of kidney and bone diseases. We recently described the generation of five ENU-induced mutant lines as novel kidney disease models according to their increased plasma urea levels . The phenotypic mutant founders showed plasma electrolyte levels within the normal range. However, differences were observed between phenotypic mutants and wild-type littermate controls for defined plasma electrolytes in individual lines (unpublished results). Deviations of plasma Ca and P appeared in ENU-induced mutant lines which were established in dysmorphology screens for growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities (e.g. [20–22]). In addition, measurement of plasma copper levels as examination parameter was successfully carried out to generate novel ENU-induced mutant lines for the analysis of specific functional pathways http://www.informatics.jax.org; http://www.brc.riken.jp/lab/gsc/mouse.
In contrast to the low numbers of phenotypic variants by using plasma electrolytes, the clinical chemical screens carried out for the generation of novel mutant mouse models in ENU projects were successful with plasma substrates (e.g. cholesterol, glucose, urea) and plasma enzyme activities as examination parameters ( and refs. therein) http://www.har.mrc.ac.uk/mousebook; http://www.brc.riken.jp/lab/gsc/mouse.
In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the use of the plasma electrolytes Ca, Cl, K, Na and P in the clinical chemical blood analysis of the Munich ENU mouse mutagenesis project to detect dominant and recessive mutations leading to deviations in plasma levels. Analysis of 11,700 G1 mice revealed 24 G1 phenotypic variants from 23 ENU-mutagenized G0 males, and analysis of 6,300 G3 mice revealed 32 G3 phenotypic variants from 21 G1 males which were derived from 21 different ENU-mutagenized G0 males. To date, five mutant lines showing altered plasma electrolyte levels were produced. The causes for the increased plasma K levels of the mutant lines established in our ENU project may be deviations in the K distribution/metabolism as well as factors leading to cellular stress e.g. of blood cells. In contrast to other plasma parameters used and despite a rather wide physiologic range of the values of at least some parameters e.g. Cl, the own results and published data from other phenotype-driven ENU projects revealed a small number of mice with deviations in plasma electrolyte levels. One reason may be a redundant regulation of plasma electrolyte levels in essential pathways like the maintenance of osmotic pressure and acid-base equilibrium leading to the masking of single mutations by compensatory effects of other genes. Alternatively, animals with major plasma electrolyte deviations may rarely survive until the examination time point used. Thus, plasma electrolytes as examination parameters in ENU projects have less impact for the establishment of novel mutant mouse lines for the functional kidney and/or bone analysis but are successfully used as secondary diagnostic parameters for other primary genetic defects.
This work was supported by the German Human Genome Project (DHGP) and the National Genome Research Network (NGFN) (MHdA, EW).
- Greiling H, Gressner AM: Lehrbuch der Klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie. 1995, Stuttgart: Schattauer, ThirdGoogle Scholar
- Loeb WF, Quimby FW: The clinical chemistry of laboratory animals. 1999, Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis, SecondGoogle Scholar
- Hrabé de Angelis M, Michel D, Wagner S, Becker S, Beckers J: Chemical mutagenesis in mice. The mouse in biomedical research – History, wild mice, and genetics. Edited by: Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL. 2007, Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1: 225-260.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hrabé de Angelis M, Flaswinkel H, Fuchs H, Rathkolb B, Soewarto D, Marschall S: Genome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nat Genet. 2000, 25: 444-447.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nolan PM, Peters J, Strivens M, Rogers D, Hagan J, Spurr N: A systematic, genome-wide, phenotype-driven mutagenesis programme for gene function studies in the mouse. Nat Genet. 2000, 25: 440-443.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbaric I, Wells S, Russ A, Dear TN: Spectrum of ENU-induced mutations in phenotype-driven and gene-driven screens in the mouse. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2007, 48: 124-142.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takahasi KR, Sakuraba Y, Gondo Y: Mutational pattern and frequency of induced nucleotide changes in mouse ENU mutagenesis. BMC Mol Biol. 2007, 8: 52-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rathkolb B, Decker T, Fuchs E, Soewarto D, Fella C, Heffner S: The clinical-chemical screen in the Munich ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project: screening for clinically relevant phenotypes. Mamm Genome. 2000, 11: 543-546.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gailus-Durner V, Fuchs H, Becker L, Bolle I, Brielmeier M, Calzada-Wack J: Introducing the German Mouse Clinic: open access platform for standardized phenotyping. Nat Methods. 2005, 2: 403-404.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohr M, Klempt M, Rathkolb B, Hrabé de Angelis M, Wolf E, Aigner B: Hypercholesterolemia in ENU-induced mouse mutants. J Lipid Res. 2004, 45: 2132-2137.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicklas W, Baneux P, Boot R, Decelle T, Deeny AA, Fumanelli M: Recommendations for the health monitoring of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units. Lab Anim. 2002, 36: 20-42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klempt M, Rathkolb B, Aigner B, Wolf E: Clinical chemical screen. Standards of mouse model phenotyping. Edited by: Hrabé de Angelis M, Chambon P, Brown S. 2006, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 87-107.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klempt M, Rathkolb B, Fuchs E, Hrabé de Angelis M, Wolf E, Aigner B: Genotype-specific environmental impact on the variance of blood values in inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Mamm Genome. 2006, 17: 93-102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Champy MF, Selloum M, Zeitler V, Caradec C, Jung B, Rousseau S: Genetic background determines metabolic phenotypes in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 2008, 19: 318-331.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aigner B, Rathkolb B, Klaften M, Sedlmeier R, Klempt M, Wagner S: Generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutants with deviations in plasma enzyme activities as novel organ-specific disease models. Exp Physiol. 2009, 94: 412-421.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aigner B, Rathkolb B, Herbach N, Hrabé de Angelis M, Wanke R, Wolf E: Diabetes models by screen for hyperglycemia in phenotype-driven ENU mouse mutagenesis projects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008, 294: E232-E240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cordes SP: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis: boarding the mouse mutant express. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005, 69: 426-439.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hough TA, Nolan PM, Tsipouri V, Toye AA, Gray IC, Goldsworthy M: Novel phenotypes identified by plasma biochemical screening in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 2002, 13: 595-602.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aigner B, Rathkolb B, Herbach N, Kemter E, Schessl C, Klaften M: Screening for increased plasma urea levels in a large-scale ENU mouse mutagenesis project reveals kidney disease models. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007, 292: F1560-F1567.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carpinelli MR, Wicks IP, Sims NA, O'Donnell K, Hanzinikolas K, Burt R: An ethyl-nitrosourea-induced point mutation in phex causes exon skipping, x-linked hypophosphatemia, and rickets. Am J Pathol. 2002, 161: 1925-1933.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lisse TS, Thiele F, Fuchs H, Hans W, Przemeck GK, Abe K: ER stress-mediated apoptosis in a new mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. PLoS Genet. 2008, 4: e7-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiong X, Qi X, Ge X, Gu P, Zhao J, Zhao Q: A novel Phex mutation with defective glycosylation causes hypophosphatemia and rickets in mice. J Biomed Sci. 2008, 15: 47-59.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.