- Open Access
Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR signaling in NSCLC cells
© Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
- Received: 25 January 2015
- Accepted: 30 April 2015
- Published: 3 June 2015
EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently overexpressed and mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of many cancers, including NSCLC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to TKI remains a common obstacle. One strategy that may help overcome EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As EGFR is a client protein of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and sulforaphane is known to functionally regulate HSP90, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could attenuate EGFR-related signaling and potentially be used to treat NSCLC.
Our study revealed that sulforaphane displayed antitumor activity against NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appeared to positively correlate with the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, which was attributed to the increased proteasomal degradation of EGFR. Combined treatment of NSCLC cells with sulforaphane plus another HSP90 inhibitor (17-AAG) enhanced the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling both in vitro and in vivo.
We have shown that sulforaphane is a novel inhibitory modulator of EGFR expression and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane should be further explored for its potential clinical applications against NSCLC.
- Lung cancer
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major dominant cell type . The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in many human tumors, including NSCLC. The intracellular signaling pathways activated by EGFR, which include the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways, play central roles in controlling cell survival, growth and proliferation . Inhibition of EGFR signaling, therefore, has been widely explored for its therapeutic potential against many different cancers . Treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has led to dramatic clinical improvement in some patients with NSCLC , but intrinsic and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI is common [5,6]. One potential strategy for addressing EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) comprise the largest category of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) client proteins , one strategy aimed at targeting RTKs for degradation is to inhibit HSP90. Many inhibitors of HSP90 have been developed and some of them, such as 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), are currently undergoing clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs . However, 17-AAG is poorly soluble and suffers from low oral bioavailability, metabolism issues and hepatotoxicity .
Natural products have been the major source of the currently available anticancer drugs, and identifying their active chemical ingredients and deducing the molecular targets of such ingredients is viewed as an attractive approach for drug development. Sulforaphane, which was first identified in broccoli sprouts and is present at high concentrations in most cruciferous vegetables , has been shown to be potentially effective at moderating multiple cellular targets involved in cancer development, leading to the repression of cancer cell proliferation, stimulation of cancer cell apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis [10,11]. Combined treatment with doxorubicin and sulforaphane has been shown to reverse the doxorubicin-resistant phenotype in mutant mouse fibroblasts , while combined treatment with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and sulforaphane has been shown to induce apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines . Therefore, sulforaphane appears to effectively counteract the drug-resistant phenotypes of several cancers. In view of the recent finding that sulforaphane can inhibit HSP90 function in prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines [14-16], we hypothesized that sulforaphane may be a novel EGFR-targeting therapeutic agent that could be used for the treatment of NSCLC. In this study, we examined the EGFR modulation activity and antitumor potential of sulforaphane in several NSCLC cell lines which harboring wild-type or mutant EGFR. Our results indicate that sulforaphane is a novel modulator of EGFR and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells.
Cell lines and culture
The NSCLC-derived cell lines, A549, H1975 and H3255, were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). PC9/gef was a gefitinib-resistant cell line that had been selected from parental PC9 cells by continuous exposure to an increasing dosage of gefitinib over ~ six months, as previously described . The human NSCLC cell line, CL1-5, was as described previously . A549 and CL1-5 cells express wild-type EGFR; PC9 cells contain a deletion in exon 19 of EGFR; and H1975 and H3255 cells harbor two mutations (L858R and T790M) and a single mutation (L858R), respectively, in EGFR. The primary normal human fibroblasts (HFB) were kindly provided by Dr. Pan-Chyr Yang (National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan). All cells were cultivated in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 2 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 U/ml streptomycin. Cells were grown at 37°C in a humidified incubator containing 5% CO2.
Antibodies, oligonucleotides, and reagents
Culture media, chemical compounds and FBS were purchased from Life Technologies (Grand Island, NY, USA). Antibodies against phospho-EGFR (Tyr1068), phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705) and phospho-AKT (Ser473) were purchased from Cell Signaling (Temecula, CA, USA). Antibodies against EGFR, STAT, AKT and β-actin were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Sulforaphane, MG132 and cycloheximide were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). 17-AAG was purchased from Calbiochem (Gibbstown, NJ, USA).
Cell viability, synergy and Western blot analyses
Foci formation assay
Cells were plated to 6-well plates (100 cells per well) for 24 h and then treated with sulforaphane at the indicated concentrations for 6 days in complete culture medium. The treated cells were incubated in complete medium without sulforaphane for an additional 8 days, and then subjected to staining with 0.001% crystal violet. A foci was defined as a group of stained cells > 1 mm in diameter.
Stability of EGFR analysis
Cells were treated with or without 10 μM sulforaphane for 12 h. Cells were then treated with cycloheximide (40 μg/ml) for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h and the level of total EGFR (tEGFR) was determined by Western blotting.
Subcutaneous xenograft-based animal studies
The in vivo antitumor activity of sulforaphane and/or 17-AAG against human NSCLC was studied using 6-week-old nude BALB/c nu/nu male mice (n = 6 per group). Animals were inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with tumor cells (2 × 106) in a volume of 100 μL on day 0. Mice were randomly divided into four groups on day 5 and treated with PBS as control, 10 μmol/kg sulforaphane, 25 mg/kg 17-AAG, or both sulforaphane and 17-AAG . Sulforaphane was dissolved in PBS whereas 17-AAG was dissolved in 10% DMSO, 70% cremophor/ethanol (3:1), and 20% PBS . Sulforphane was injected intratumorally five times per week. 17-AAG was administered intraperitoneally three times per week. Tumors were generally palpable at 5 days after inoculation. Drug treatment began at Day 5 and tumor volumes were measured (using a caliper and calculated as length x width2 × 0.5) twice weekly until 21 days after injection . All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines for the Animal Care Ethics Commission of Chang Gung University under an approved animal protocol.
The presented results are representative of three independent experiments with similar results. Statistical differences were evaluated using the Student’s t-test, and were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Effects of sulforaphane on the viability and growth of human NSCLC cells in vitro
The IC50 of sulforaphane for human NSCLC cells harboring different EGFR mutations
EGFR mutation status
IC50 (μM) a
10.2 ± 0.15
9.7 ± 0.33
14.5 ± 0.21
Exon 19 del.
7.3 ± 0.25
5.9 ± 0.18
65.4 ± 0.29
Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR expression and EGFR signaling in NSCLC cell lines
Sulforaphane potentially modulates EGFR expression by accelerating protein degradation in NSCLC cells
Sulforaphane enhances the antitumor activity of 17-AAG in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo
To investigate the antitumor effects of the combined treatment in vivo, we employed a xenograft animal model. Nude mice injected with H1975 cells developed tumors that reached ~ 100 mm3 in size after about 5 days. Beginning on day 5, the mice were treated with PBS, 25 mg/kg 17-AAG, 10 μmol/kg sulforaphane, or a combination of sulforaphane and 17-AAG. Sulforphane was injected intratumorally five times per week. 17-AAG was administered intraperitoneally three times per week. As shown in Fig. 4c, tumor growth was inhibited by the administration of 17-AAG or sulforaphane alone, and the combined treatment with sulforaphane plus 17-AAG produced an even greater inhibition of tumor growth. Under our experimental conditions, there was no noticeable change in body weight or overt sign of toxicity in the treated mice (Fig. 4d).
The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), EGFR, is a transmembrane protein with cytoplasmic kinase activity that transduces important growth factor signaling from the extracellular milieu to the cell. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and mutated in NSCLC . Since many mutant EGFRs can activate signal transduction independent of ligand binding, EGFR mutations are strong predictors for the efficacy of EGFR-TK inhibitor (TKI)-based therapeutics. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI remains a common phenomenon. To overcome the problems associated with EGFR-TKI resistance, strategies aimed at inhibiting EGFR signaling have been explored. As RTKs comprise the largest category of client proteins for HSP90 , one strategy aimed at targeting RTKs for degradation is to inhibit HSP90.
In view of the recent finding that sulforaphane can functionally regulate HSP90 [14-16], we postulated that this agent might attenuate EGFR signaling, and thus could prove useful for the treatment of TKI-resistant NSCLC. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with sulforaphane reduced viability and inhibited foci formation of TKI-resistant (H1975, PC9/gef, A549 and CL1-5) NSCLC cells (Fig. 1). H1975 cells, which harbor EGFR double mutations (L858R and T790M), were the most sensitive to sulforaphane treatment in vitro (Fig. 1). The sensitivity of TKI-resistant NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appears to be correlated with increased inhibition of EGFR-related signaling in these cells (Fig. 2). Although we do not yet know the detailed mechanisms underlying this increased inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, we found that sulforaphane appeared to decrease the stability of EGFR, possibly by increasing its proteasomal degradation (Fig. 3). In addition, we found that sulforaphane enhanced the degradation of total EGFR and phosphor-EGFR by 17-AAG (Fig. 4a). As 17-AAG is known to interact with the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of HSP90 (8) to exert its inhibition activity, it remains to be determined if sulforaphane may also interact with the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of HSP90. Previous studies have suggested that sulforaphane may inactivate histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated deacetylation of HSP90 , directly interact with specific amino acid residues of HSP90 and induce degradation of HSP90 client proteins , and/or activate the proteasomal system . It is likely that the sulforaphane-induced modulation of EGFR stability observed herein may be attributed to one or more of these mechanisms.
Our finding of a novel role for sulforaphane in modulating EGFR led us to speculate that this agent might be capable of enhancing the therapeutic potential of other HSP inhibitors, such as 17-AAG, in treating TKI-resistant NSCLC. Indeed, we found that sulforaphane increased the antitumor activity of 17-AAG against TKI-resistant H1975 cells both in vitro and in vivo (Fig. 4). Therefore, sulforaphane may have potential as a nontoxic additive capable of increasing the therapeutic potential of other anticancer agents to treat NSCLC.
In summary, we herein report that sulforaphane is a novel modulator of EGFR that destabilizes EGFR and down-regulates EGFR-related signaling in NSCLC cells. It is suggested that sulfornaphane should be further explored for its potential therapeutic application in the treatment of NSCLC.
This work was supported by grants from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1A0423 to T.C. Wang, and CMRPF1C0131 and CMRPF1C0132 to C.Y. Chen), the National Science Council and Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (NSC; NSC 102-2320-B-255-001, and MOST 103-2314-B-255-005 to C.Y. Chen). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, publication decision or manuscript preparation.
- Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58(2):71–96.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jorissen RN, Walker F, Pouliot N, Garrett TP, Ward CW, Burgess AW. Epidermal growth factor receptor: mechanisms of activation and signalling. Exp Cell Res. 2003;284(1):31–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hynes NE, Lane HA. ERBB receptors and cancer: the complexity of targeted inhibitors. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005;5(5):341–54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fukuoka M, Yano S, Giaccone G, Tamura T, Nakagawa K, Douillard JY, et al. Multi-institutional randomized phase II trial of gefitinib for previously treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (The IDEAL 1 Trial) [corrected]. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(12):2237–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Riely GJ. The use of first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with NSCLC and somatic EGFR mutations. Lung Cancer. 2008;60 Suppl 2:S19–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laurent-Puig P, Lievre A, Blons H. Mutations and response to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(4):1133–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whitesell L, Lindquist SL. HSP90 and the chaperoning of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005;5(10):761–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trepel J, Mollapour M, Giaccone G, Neckers L. Targeting the dynamic HSP90 complex in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10(8):537–49.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(6):2399–403.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fimognari C, Hrelia P. Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer. Mutat Res. 2007;635(2–3):90–104.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaminski BM, Steinhilber D, Stein JM, Ulrich S. Phytochemicals resveratrol and sulforaphane as potential agents for enhancing the anti-tumor activities of conventional cancer therapies. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012;13(1):137–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fimognari C, Lenzi M, Sciuscio D, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P. Combination of doxorubicin and sulforaphane for reversing doxorubicin-resistant phenotype in mouse fibroblasts with p53Ser220 mutation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1095:62–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Landen CN, Li Y, Alvarez RD, Tollefsbol TO. Epigallocatechin gallate and sulforaphane combination treatment induce apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells through hTERT and Bcl-2 down-regulation. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319(5):697–706.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Karagoz GE, Seo YH, Zhang T, Jiang Y, Yu Y, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50(Cdc37) complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23(12):1617–26.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Zhang T, Schwartz SJ, Sun D. Sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin against pancreatic cancer through enhanced abrogation of Hsp90 chaperone function. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(7):1151–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gibbs A, Schwartzman J, Deng V, Alumkal J. Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(39):16663–8.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang TH, Tsai MF, Su KY, Wu SG, Huang CP, Yu SL, et al. Slug confers resistance to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;183(8):1071–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chu YW, Yang PC, Yang SC, Shyu YC, Hendrix MJ, Wu R, et al. Selection of invasive and metastatic subpopulations from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1997;17(3):353–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen CY, Jan CI, Lo JF, Yang SC, Chang YL, Pan SH, et al. Tid1-L Inhibits EGFR Signaling in Lung Adenocarcinoma by Enhancing EGFR Ubiquitinylation and Degradation. Cancer Res. 2013;73(13):4009–19.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lai WY, Chen CY, Yang SC, Wu JY, Chang CJ, Yang PC, et al. Overcoming EGFR T790M-based Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance with an Allele-specific DNAzyme. Molecular therapy Nucleic acids. 2014;3:e150.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen CY, Yang SC, Lee KH, Yang X, Wei LY, Chow LP, et al. The antitumor agent PBT-1 directly targets HSP90 and hnRNP A2/B1 and inhibits lung adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis. J Med Chem. 2014;57(3):677–85.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sordella R, Bell DW, Haber DA, Settleman J. Gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutations in lung cancer activate anti-apoptotic pathways. Science. 2004;305(5687):1163–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu YP, Tsai IC, Morleo M, Oh EC, Leitch CC, Massa F, et al. Ciliopathy proteins regulate paracrine signaling by modulating proteasomal degradation of mediators. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(5):2059–70.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shimamura T, Li D, Ji H, Haringsma HJ, Liniker E, Borgman CL, et al. Hsp90 inhibition suppresses mutant EGFR-T790M signaling and overcomes kinase inhibitor resistance. Cancer Res. 2008;68(14):5827–38.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sawai A, Chandarlapaty S, Greulich H, Gonen M, Ye Q, Arteaga CL, et al. Inhibition of Hsp90 down-regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and sensitizes EGFR mutant tumors to paclitaxel. Cancer Res. 2008;68(2):589–96.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Citri A, Yarden Y. EGF-ERBB signalling: towards the systems level. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7(7):505–16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.